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Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866 – August 6, 1945) was a leading American progressive and isolationist Republican politician from California. He served as the 23rd Governor of California
California
from 1911 to 1917 and as a United States Senator
United States Senator
from 1917 to 1945. He was also Theodore Roosevelt's running mate in the 1912 presidential election on the Progressive (also known as the "Bull Moose") ticket. After working as a stenographer and reporter, Johnson embarked on a legal career. He began his practice in his hometown of Sacramento, California, but moved to San Francisco, where he worked as an assistant district attorney. Gaining statewide notoriety for his prosecutions of public corruption, Johnson won the 1910 California gubernatorial election with the backing of the Lincoln–Roosevelt League. He instituted several progressive reforms, establishing a railroad commission and introducing aspects of direct democracy such as the power to recall state officials. Johnson joined with Roosevelt and other progressives to form the Progressive Party and won the party's 1912 vice presidential nomination. In one of the best third party performances in U.S. history, the ticket finished second nationally in the popular and electoral vote. Johnson won election to the Senate in 1916, becoming a leader of the chamber's progressive Republicans. He also emerged as a leading voice for isolationism, opposing U.S. entry into World War I
World War I
and U.S. participation in the League of Nations. He helped enact the Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1924, which severely restricted immigration from East Asian
East Asian
countries. Johnson unsuccessfully sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1920 and 1924 and supported Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
in the 1932 presidential election. Johnson supported many of the New Deal
New Deal
programs but came to oppose Roosevelt as the latter's tenure continued. Johnson remained in the Senate until his death in 1945.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Governor 3 Senator 4 Death 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

8.1 Primary sources

9 External links

9.1 Archives

Early years[edit] Johnson was born in Sacramento, California
California
on September 2, 1866; his father was Grove Lawrence Johnson, a Republican Representative and a member of the California
California
State Legislature who was accused of election irregularities and using his political offices to look after his personal financial interests. His mother was Annie DeMontfredy, partially descended of a family of Huguenots who had left France after the Edict of Nantes, to escape religious persecution. Annie was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution, claiming descent from a general of the Continental Army. Johnson had a brother and three sisters.[1] After attending public schools and Heald College, Johnson first worked as a shorthand reporter and stenographer in law offices. He eventually pursued a legal career, studying at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity. He was admitted to the bar in 1888 and commenced practice in his hometown. In 1902, he moved to San Francisco. He served as assistant district attorney and became active in reform politics, taking up an anti-corruption mantle. He attracted statewide attention in 1908 when he assisted Francis J. Heney
Francis J. Heney
in the graft prosecution of Abe Ruef
Abe Ruef
and Mayor Eugene Schmitz. His success was due in large measure to the fact that after Heney was gunned down in the courtroom, he took the lead for the prosecution and won the case. He married Minne L. McNeal; the couple had two sons. Governor[edit]

Johnson during his tenure as governor

Johnson and newly elected Lieutenant Governor A.J. Wallace, right, in the Los Angeles Herald, November 9, 1910

In 1910, Johnson won the gubernatorial election as a member of the Lincoln–Roosevelt League, a liberal Republican movement running on an anti- Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
platform. He toured the state in an open automobile. In office, Johnson was a populist who implemented many important reforms. Among them was the popular election of U.S. senators, which stripped away the sole franchise of the California State Legislature to vote for federal senators. Johnson's administration also pushed for the ability of candidates to register in more than one political party, a reform that he believed would cripple the influence of what he viewed as a monolithic political establishment. In 1911, Johnson and the Progressives added initiative, referendum, and recall to the state government, giving California
California
a degree of direct democracy unmatched by any other U.S. state. Johnson was instrumental in the establishment of a railroad commission to regulate the power of the Southern Pacific Railroad. On taking office, Johnson soon paroled the convicted Southern Pacific train bandit Chris Evans but required that he leave California. Although initially opposed to the bill, Johnson eventually gave in to political pressure and supported the California
California
Alien Land Law of 1913, which prevented Asian immigrants (excluded from naturalized citizenship because of their race) from owning land in the state.[2] Nationally, Johnson was a founder of the Progressive Party in 1912. That same year, he was the party's vice presidential candidate, sharing a ticket with former President Theodore Roosevelt; his selection helped Roosevelt to carry California
California
by 0.2 percent of the votes. The Progressives finished second nationally ahead of the incumbent Republican, President William Howard Taft, but still lost the election to the Democrats and their candidate, Woodrow Wilson. Johnson was re-elected governor of California
California
in 1914, almost doubling his opponent's vote total.[3][4] Senator[edit] In 1916, Johnson ran successfully for the U.S. Senate, defeating Democrat George S. Patton Sr., and assuming office on March 16, 1917. It is alleged that was the year that he spoke the words for which he is best remembered today: "The first casualty when war comes is truth" about United States entry into World War I. However, the source of the famous quote has yet to be determined.[5] From 1917 to 1929, he resided at Riversdale in Riverdale Park, Maryland. Following Theodore Roosevelt's death in January 1919, Johnson was regarded as the natural leader of the Progressive Party. In 1920, however, he did not attempt to revive the Progressive Party, but ran for President as a Republican. He was defeated for the Republican presidential nomination by U.S. Senator Warren Harding
Warren Harding
of Ohio. Johnson also did not get the support of Roosevelt's family, who instead supported Roosevelt's long-time friend Leonard Wood. At the convention, Johnson was asked to serve as Harding's running mate, but he declined.[6] Johnson helped push through the Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1924, having worked with Valentine S. McClatchy and other anti-Japanese lobbyists to prohibit Japanese and other East Asian
East Asian
immigrants from entering the United States.[2] Johnson sought the 1924 Republican nomination against President Calvin Coolidge, but his campaign was derailed after he lost the California primary. Johnson declined to challenge Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
for the 1928 presidential nomination, instead choosing to seek re-election to the Senate.[6] When the motion picture industry sought someone to establish a self-regulatory process and to help the industry fend off official censorship, three candidates were identified: Herbert Hoover, Johnson and Will H. Hays. Hays, who had campaigned actively for Harding among industry leaders, was ultimately named to head the new Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in early 1922.[7] As a senator, Johnson proved extremely popular. In 1934, he was re-elected with 94.5 percent of the popular vote because he was nominated by both Republicans and Democrats and his only opponent was Socialist George Ross Kirkpatrick.[8]

Play media

Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
at the 1913 California
California
State Fair

In the 1932 presidential election, Johnson broke with President Hoover, and was one of the most prominent Republicans in the country to support Franklin D. Roosevelt.[6] During the early presidency of Roosevelt, Johnson supported the president's economic recovery package, the New Deal, and frequently crossed the floor to aid the Democrats. He even endorsed FDR in the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections, although he never switched party affiliation. He became disenchanted with Roosevelt and the New Deal
New Deal
following FDR's unsuccessful attempt to increase the size of the Supreme Court. As a staunch isolationist, Johnson voted against the League of Nations. He was not present when the Senate voted to ratify the treaty to create a similar organization, the United Nations, but he made it known that he would have voted against ratification; only senators Henrik Shipstead and William Langer actually cast votes against the United Nations Charter.[9] In 1943, a confidential analysis of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee made by British scholar Isaiah Berlin
Isaiah Berlin
for his Foreign Office stated that Johnson:

is the Isolationists' elder statesman and the only surviving member of the [William E. ] Borah- [Henry Cabot] Lodge-Johnson combination which led the fight against the League in 1919 and 1920. He is an implacable and uncompromising Isolationist with immense prestige in California, of which he has twice been Governor. His election to the Senate has not been opposed for many years by either party. He is acutely Pacific-conscious and is a champion of a more adequate defence of the West Coast. He is a member of the Farm Bloc and is au fond, against foreign affairs as such; his view of Europe as a sink of iniquity has not changed in any particular since 1912, when he founded a short-lived progressive party. His prestige in Congress is still great and his parliamentary skill should not be underestimated.[10]

Johnson achieved Senate seniority as Chairman of the Committee on Cuban Relations in the Sixty-sixth Congress; he was also a member of the Patents, Immigration, Territories and Insular Possessions and Commerce
Commerce
committees. He was California's longest-serving senator.[11] Death[edit]

The front page of the Los Angeles Times for August 7, 1945, reporting the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and the death of Johnson

Having served in the Senate for almost thirty years, Johnson died in the Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on August 6, 1945, ironically (for a staunch isolationist) on the date of the first deployment of nuclear weapons in warfare, by the United States on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. He was interred in Cypress Lawn Memorial Park in Colma, California. Legacy[edit] Johnson gained some recognition in the media and general public during the 2003 California
California
recall election because he was the most important person behind the introduction of the law that allowed state officials to be recalled. Also, then-gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger referred to Johnson's progressive legacy in his campaign speeches. On August 25, 2009, Governor Schwarzenegger and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Johnson would be one of 13 California
California
Hall of Fame. The Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
papers reside at the Bancroft Library
Bancroft Library
at the University of California, Berkeley.[12] Hiram Johnson High School
Hiram Johnson High School
in Sacramento, California
California
is named in his honor. See also[edit]

biography portal

List of United States Congress members who died in office (1900–49)

References[edit]

^ "HON. HIRAM WARREN JOHNSON". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ a b Niiya, Brian. "Hiram Johnson". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 29, 2014.  ^ California
California
gubernatorial election, 1914 ^ "The only successful progressive leader". The Independent. Nov 16, 1914. Retrieved July 24, 2012.  ^ Wikiquote, Hiram Johnson ^ a b c Hamilton, Marty (September 1962). " Bull Moose
Bull Moose
Plays an Encore: Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
and the Presidential Campaign of 1932". California Historical Society Quarterly. 41 (3): 211–221.  ^ "Will Hays: America's Morality Czar", "Source: 'Will Hays.' Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement, Vol. 21. Gale Group, 2001." Retrieved 2011-09-12. ^ "HarpWeek - Elections - 1912 Biographies". elections.harpweek.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ "Congressional Record" (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ Hachey, Thomas E. (Winter 1973–1974). "American Profiles on Capitol Hill: A Confidential Study for the British Foreign Office
Foreign Office
in 1943" (PDF). Wisconsin Magazine of History. 57 (2): 141–153. JSTOR 4634869. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013.  ^ "Who were California's longest-serving senators?". LA Times. 2014-11-16. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
papers, 1895-1945

Further reading[edit]

Blackford, Mansel Griffiths. "Businessmen and the regulation of railroads and public utilities in California
California
during the Progressive Era." Business History Review 44.03 (1970): 307-319. Feinman, Ronald L. Twilight of progressivism: the western Republican senators and the New Deal
New Deal
(Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981) Le Pore, Herbert P. "Prelude to Prejudice: Hiram Johnson, Woodrow Wilson, and the California
California
Alien Land Law Controversy of 1913." Southern California
California
Quarterly (1979): 99-110. in JSTOR Lower, Richard Coke. A Bloc of One: The Political Career of Hiram W. Johnson (Stanford University Press, 1993) McKee, Irving. "The Background and Early Career of Hiram Warren Johnson, 1866-1910." Pacific Historical Review (1950): 17-30. in JSTOR Miller, Karen A.J. Populist nationalism: Republican insurgency and American foreign policy making, 1918-1925 (Greenwood, 1999) Olin, Spencer C. California's prodigal sons: Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
and the Progressives, 1911-1917 (U of California
California
Press, 1968) Olin, Spencer C. "Hiram Johnson, the California
California
Progressives, and the Hughes Campaign of 1916." The Pacific Historical Review (1962): 403-412. in JSTOR Olin, Spencer C. "Hiram Johnson, the Lincoln-Roosevelt League, and the Election of 1910." California
California
Historical Society Quarterly (1966): 225-240. in JSTOR Shover, John L. "The progressives and the working class vote in California." Labor History (1969) 10#4 pp: 584-601. online Weatherson, Michael A., and Hal Bochin. Hiram Johnson: Political Revivalist (University Press of America, 1995) Weatherson, Michael A., and Hal Bochin. Hiram Johnson: A Bio-Bibliography (Greenwood Press, 1988)

Primary sources[edit]

Johnson, Hiram. The diary letters of Hiram Johnson, 1917-1945 (Vol. 1. Garland Publishing, 1983)

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hiram Johnson

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hiram Johnson.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Johnson, Hiram Warren.

United States Congress. "JOHNSON, Hiram Warren (id: J000140)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 

Guide to the Hiram Johnson
Hiram Johnson
Papers at the Bancroft Library Hiram Warren Johnson at Find a Grave

Archives[edit]

[1] Robert E. Burke Collection at the Labor Archives of the University of Washington Libraries]

Political offices

Preceded by James Gillett Governor of California 1911–1917 Succeeded by William Stephens

U.S. Senate

Preceded by John D. Works U.S. Senator (Class 1) from California March 16, 1917 – August 6, 1945 Served alongside: James D. Phelan, Samuel M. Shortridge, William Gibbs McAdoo, Thomas M. Storke, Sheridan Downey Succeeded by William F. Knowland

Preceded by Oscar Underwood Alabama Chair of the Senate Committee on Cuban Relations 1919–1921 Office abolished

Party political offices

Preceded by James Gillett Republican nominee for Governor of California 1910 Succeeded by John D. Fredericks

First Party created in 1912

Progressive (Bull Moose) nominee for Vice President of the United States 1912 Party dissolved

First Party created in 1912

Progressive (Bull Moose) nominee for Governor of California 1914 Party dissolved

First after direct election of Senators was adopted in 1913

Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from California
California
(Class 1) 1916, 1922, 1928, 1934, 1940 Succeeded by William F. Knowland

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Leo H. Baekeland Cover of Time magazine 29 September 1924 Succeeded by William Allen White

v t e

Governors of California

Colony (1769–1822)

Capt. Portolà Col. Fages Capt. Rivera Capt-Gen. de Neve Col. Fages Capt. Roméu Capt. Arrillaga Col. Bórica Lt. Col. Alberní Capt. Arrillaga Capt. J. Argüello Don Solá

Territory (1822–36)

Capt. L. Argüello Lt. Col. Echeandía Gen. Victoria Don P. Pico Lt. Col. Echeandía Brig. Gen. Figueroa Lt. Col. Castro Lt. Col. Gutiérrez Col. Chico Lt. Col. Gutiérrez

Sovereignty (1836–46)

Pres. Castro Pres. Alvarado · Uncle Carrillo (rival) Brig. Gen. Micheltorena Don P. Pico

Republic (1846–50)

Cdre. Sloat Cdre. Stockton · Gen. Flores (rival) Gen. Kearny · Maj. Frémont (mutineer) Gen. Mason Gen. Smith Gen. Riley Burnett (from 1849)

U.S. State (since 1850)

Burnett McDougal Bigler J. Johnson Weller Latham Downey Stanford Low Haight Booth Pacheco Irwin Perkins Stoneman Bartlett Waterman Markham Budd Gage Pardee Gillett H. Johnson Stephens Richardson Young Rolph Merriam Olson Warren Knight P. Brown Reagan J. Brown Deukmejian Wilson Davis Schwarzenegger J. Brown

Before 1850 After 1850 After 1850 by age

v t e

Third-party governors of U.S. states

Populist Party

William A. Poynter
William A. Poynter
(NE) Andrew E. Lee
Andrew E. Lee
(SD) John W. Leedy
John W. Leedy
(KS) John Rankin Rogers
John Rankin Rogers
(WA) Silas A. Holcomb
Silas A. Holcomb
(NE) Lorenzo D. Lewelling
Lorenzo D. Lewelling
(KS) Davis Hanson Waite
Davis Hanson Waite
(CO)

Silver Party

Denver S. Dickerson
Denver S. Dickerson
(NV) John Sparks (NV) Reinhold Sadler
Reinhold Sadler
(NV) John Jones (NV)

Other parties

Jesse Ventura
Jesse Ventura
(MN) Lowell Weicker (CT) Wally Hickel
Wally Hickel
(AK) Elmer Austin Benson
Elmer Austin Benson
(MN) Hjalmar Petersen
Hjalmar Petersen
(MN) Philip La Follette
Philip La Follette
(WI) Floyd B. Olson
Floyd B. Olson
(MN) Sidney Johnston Catts
Sidney Johnston Catts
(FL) John P. Buchanan
John P. Buchanan
(TN) William E. Cameron
William E. Cameron
(VA)

Independents

Lincoln Chafee
Lincoln Chafee
(RI) Charlie Crist
Charlie Crist
(FL) Angus King
Angus King
(ME) James B. Longley
James B. Longley
(ME) Eli C. D. Shortridge
Eli C. D. Shortridge
(ND) Bill Walker (AK) Julius Meier
Julius Meier
(OR)

Portal:Politics Third party (United States) Third party officeholders in the United States Notable third party performances in United States elections

v t e

United States Senators from California

Class 1

Frémont Weller Broderick Haun Latham Conness Casserly Hager Booth Miller Hearst Williams Hearst Felton White Bard Flint Works Johnson Knowland Engle Salinger Murphy Tunney Hayakawa Wilson Seymour Feinstein

Class 3

Gwin McDougall Cole Sargent Farley Stanford Perkins Phelan Shortridge McAdoo Storke Downey Nixon Kuchel Cranston Boxer Harris

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Commerce
Commerce
and Manufactures (1816–1825)

Hunter Sanford Dickerson

Commerce (1825–1947)

Lloyd Johnston Woodbury Forsyth King Silsbee Goldsborough Davis King Huntington Haywood Dix Hamlin Dodge Clay Chandler Conkling Gordon Ransom McMillan Frye Ransom Frye Nelson Clarke Fletcher Jones H. Johnson Stephens Copeland Bailey

Interstate Commerce (1887–1947)

Cullom Butler Cullom Elkins Clapp Newlands Smith Cummins Smith Watson Couzens Dill Wheeler

Interstate and Foreign Commerce/Commerce (1947–1977)

White E. Johnson Tobey Bricker Magnuson

Commerce, Science, and Transportation (1977–)

Magnuson Cannon Packwood Danforth Hollings Pressler McCain Hollings McCain Hollings McCain Stevens Inouye Rockefeller Thune

v t e

(1908 ←) United States presidential election, 1912
United States presidential election, 1912
(→ 1916)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Woodrow Wilson

VP nominee

Thomas R. Marshall

Candidates

Champ Clark Judson Harmon Oscar Underwood Thomas R. Marshall Eugene Foss

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

William Howard Taft

VP nominee

Nicholas Murray Butler

Candidates

Theodore Roosevelt Robert M. La Follette, Sr.

Progressive Party Convention

Nominee

Theodore Roosevelt

VP nominee

Hiram Johnson

Socialist Party

Nominee

Eugene V. Debs

VP nominee

Emil Seidel

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Eugene W. Chafin

VP nominee

Aaron S. Watkins

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Arthur E. Reimer

VP nominee

August Gillhaus

Other 1912 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1916 ←) United States presidential election, 1920
United States presidential election, 1920
(→ 1924)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

James M. Cox

VP nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Candidates

William Gibbs McAdoo A. Mitchell Palmer Al Smith John W. Davis Edward I. Edwards Woodrow Wilson Robert Latham Owen

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Warren G. Harding

VP nominee

Calvin Coolidge

Candidates

Leonard Wood Frank Orren Lowden Hiram Johnson William Cameron Sproul Nicholas Murray Butler Calvin Coolidge Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Jeter Connelly Pritchard Miles Poindexter Howard Sutherland Herbert Hoover

Third party and independent candidates

Socialist Party of America

Nominee

Eugene V. Debs

VP nominee

Seymour Stedman

Farmer–Labor Party

Nominee

Parley P. Christensen

VP nominee

Max S. Hayes

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Aaron S. Watkins

VP nominee

D. Leigh Colvin

American Party

Nominee

James E. Ferguson

VP nominee

William J. Hough

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

William Wesley Cox

VP nominee

August Gillhaus

Single Tax

Nominee

Robert Colvin Macauley

VP nominee

Richard C. Barnum

Other 1920 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1920 ←) United States presidential election, 1924
United States presidential election, 1924
(→ 1928)

Democratic Party Convention Primaries

Nominee

John W. Davis

VP nominee

Charles W. Bryan

Candidates

William Gibbs McAdoo Al Smith Oscar Underwood

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Calvin Coolidge

VP nominee

Charles G. Dawes

Candidates

Hiram Johnson Robert M. La Follette, Sr.

Progressive Party

Nominee

Robert M. La Follette, Sr.

VP nominee

Burton K. Wheeler

Third party and independent candidates

Communist Party

Nominee

William Z. Foster

VP nominee

Benjamin Gitlow

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Herman P. Faris

VP nominee

Marie C. Brehm

American Party

Nominee

Gilbert Nations

VP nominee

Charles Hiram Randall

Other 1924 elections: House Senate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64812833 LCCN: n83179908 ISNI: 0000 0000 2352 7084 GND: 11923601X SUDOC: 168620863 BNF: cb166554173 (data) US Congress: J000

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