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Woodrow Wilson Democratic

Elected President Warren G. Harding Republican

The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. In the first election held after the end of World War I and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson privately hoped for a third term, but party leaders were unwilling to re-nominate the unpopular incumbent. Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the front-runner for the Republican nomination, but he died in 1919 without leaving an obvious heir to his progressive legacy. With both Wilson and Roosevelt out of the running, the major parties turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the state of Ohio, a swing state with a large number of electoral votes. Cox won the 1920 Democratic National Convention on the 44th ballot, defeating William Gibbs McAdoo, A. Mitchell Palmer, and several other candidates. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate between the conservative and progressive wings of the party, and he clinched his nomination on the tenth ballot of the 1920 Republican National Convention. The election was dominated by the American social and political environment in the aftermath of World War I, which was marked by a hostile response to certain aspects of Wilson's foreign policy and a massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed and the country was deep in a recession. Wilson's advocacy for America's entry into the League of Nations in the face of a return to non-interventionist opinion challenged his effectiveness as president and overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, the year 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of radicals and terrorists. The Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's perceived favoritism of their traditional enemy Great Britain, and his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a stroke in 1919 that left him severely disabled. Harding virtually ignored Cox in the race and essentially campaigned against Wilson by calling for a return to "normalcy." Harding won a landslide victory, sweeping every state outside of the South and becoming the first Republican since the end of Reconstruction to win a former state of the Confederacy. Harding’s victory margin of 26.2% in the popular vote remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820, though other candidates have since exceeded his share of the popular vote. Cox won just 34.1% of the popular vote, and Socialist Eugene V. Debs won 3.4% of the vote. As the election was the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states, the total popular vote increased dramatically, from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920.[2] Harding would die in 1923 and be succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, while the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would later win the 1932 presidential election.

Contents

1 Nominations

1.1 Republican Party nomination 1.2 Democratic Party nomination

2 Other candidates 3 General election

3.1 Return to normalcy 3.2 Ethnic issues 3.3 Campaign 3.4 Results 3.5 Geography of results

3.5.1 Cartographic gallery

3.6 Results by state

3.6.1 Close states 3.6.2 Statistics

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Nominations[edit] Republican Party nomination[edit] Main article: 1920 Republican National Convention

Republican Party Ticket, 1920

Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge

for President for Vice President

U.S. Senator from Ohio (1915–1921) 48th Governor of Massachusetts (1919–1921)

Campaign

Republican candidates:

Senator Warren G. Harding from Ohio

Major General Leonard Wood from New Hampshire

Governor Frank Orren Lowden of Illinois

Senator Hiram Johnson from California

Governor William Cameron Sproul of Pennsylvania

Columbia University President Nicholas Murray Butler from New York

Senator Robert M. La Follette from Wisconsin

Theodore Roosevelt from New York (Died Jan. 6, 1919)

On June 8, the Republican National Convention met in Chicago. The race was wide open, and soon the convention deadlocked between Major General Leonard Wood and Governor Frank Orren Lowden of Illinois. Other names placed in nomination included Senators Warren G. Harding from Ohio, Hiram Johnson from California, and Miles Poindexter from Washington, Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, philanthropist Herbert Hoover, and Columbia University President Nicholas M. Butler. Senator Robert M. La Follette from Wisconsin was not formally placed in nomination, but received the votes of his state delegation nonetheless. Harding was nominated for president on the tenth ballot, after some delegates shifted their allegiances. The results of the ten ballots were as follows:

Presidential Balloting, Republican National Convention 1920

Ballot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Before shifts 10 After shifts

Warren G. Harding 65.5 59.0 58.5 61.5 78.0 89.0 105.0 133.0 374.5 644.7 692.2

Leonard Wood 287.5 289.5 303.0 314.5 299.0 311.5 312.0 299.0 249.0 181.5 156.0

Frank Orren Lowden 211.5 259.5 282.5 289.0 303.0 311.5 311.5 307.0 121.5 28.0 11.0

Hiram Johnson 133.5 146.0 148.0 140.5 133.5 110.0 99.5 87.0 82.0 80.8 80.8

William Cameron Sproul 84.0 78.5 79.5 79.5 82.5 77.0 76.0 76.0 78.0 0 0

Nicholas Murray Butler 69.5 41.0 25.0 20.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

Calvin Coolidge 34.0 32.0 27.0 25.0 29.0 28.0 28.0 30.0 28.0 5.0 5.0

Robert M. La Follette 24.0 24.0 24.0 22.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0

Jeter Connelly Pritchard 21.0 10.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Miles Poindexter 20.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 2.0 0

Howard Sutherland 17.0 15.0 9.0 3.0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Herbert Hoover 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 10.5 9.5

Scattering 11.0 9.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 5.5 3.5

First Presidential Ballot

Second Presidential Ballot

Third Presidential Ballot

Fourth Presidential Ballot

Fifth Presidential Ballot

Sixth Presidential Ballot

Seventh Presidential Ballot

Eighth Presidential Ballot

Ninth Presidential Ballot

Tenth Presidential Ballot Before Shifts

Tenth Presidential Ballot After Shifts

Harding's nomination, said to have been secured in negotiations among party bosses in a "smoke-filled room," was engineered by Harry M. Daugherty, Harding's political manager, who became United States Attorney General after his election. Prior to the convention, Daugherty was quoted as saying, "I don't expect Senator Harding to be nominated on the first, second, or third ballots, but I think we can afford to take chances that about 11 minutes after two, Friday morning of the convention, when 15 or 12 weary men are sitting around a table, someone will say: 'Who will we nominate?' At that decisive time, the friends of Harding will suggest him and we can well afford to abide by the result." Daugherty's prediction described essentially what occurred, but historians Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris argue that Daugherty's prediction has been given too much weight in narratives of the convention. Once the presidential nomination was finally settled, the party bosses and Sen. Harding recommended Wisconsin Sen. Irvine Lenroot to the delegates for the second spot, but the delegates revolted and nominated Coolidge, who was very popular over his handling of the Boston Police Strike from the year before. The Tally:

Vice Presidential Balloting, Republican Nat'l Convention 1920

Calvin Coolidge 674.5

Irvine Lenroot 146.5

Henry Justin Allen 68.5

Henry W. Anderson 28

Asle Gronna 24

Hiram Johnson 22.5

Jeter Connelly Pritchard 11

Abstaining 9

Source for convention coverage: Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records (Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1973), pp. 200–208. Democratic Party nomination[edit] Main article: 1920 Democratic National Convention

Democratic Party Ticket, 1920

James M. Cox Franklin D. Roosevelt

for President for Vice President

46th & 48th Governor of Ohio (1913–1915 & 1917–1921) Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913–1920)

Campaign

Democratic candidates:

Governor James M. Cox of Ohio

William Gibbs McAdoo from California, former United States Secretary of the Treasury

Alexander M. Palmer from Pennsylvania, United States Attorney General

Governor Al Smith of New York

John W. Davis from West Virginia, Ambassador to the United Kingdom

Governor Edward I. Edwards of New Jersey

Senator Robert Latham Owen from Oklahoma

Vice President Thomas R. Marshall (Not Formally Nominated)

Edwin T. Meredith from Iowa, United States Secretary of Agriculture

Senator Carter Glass from Virginia

DNC Chairman Homer S. Cummings from Connecticut

Senator Furnifold M. Simmons from North Carolina

James W. Gerard from New York former Ambassador to Germany

Senator John Sharp Williams from Mississippi (Not Formally Nominated)

Senator Gilbert Hitchcock from Nebraska

Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison of the Philippines

President Woodrow Wilson (Not Formally Nominated)

A ticket purchased by a guest of the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

It was widely accepted prior to the election that President Woodrow Wilson would not run for a third term, and would certainly not be nominated if he did make an attempt to regain the nomination. While Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall had long held a desire to succeed Wilson, his indecisive handling of the situation around Wilson's illness and incapacity destroyed any credibility he had as a candidate, and in the end he did not formally put himself forward for the nomination. Although William Gibbs McAdoo (Wilson's son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary) was the strongest candidate, Wilson blocked his nomination in hopes a deadlocked convention would demand that he run for a third term, even though he was seriously ill, physically immobile, and in seclusion at the time. The Democrats, meeting in San Francisco between June 28 and July 6 (the first time a major party held its nominating convention in an urban center on the Pacific coast), nominated another newspaper editor from Ohio, Governor James M. Cox, as their presidential candidate, and 38-year-old Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, a fifth cousin of the late president Theodore Roosevelt, for vice-president. Early favorites for the nomination had included McAdoo and Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. Others placed in nomination included New York Governor Al Smith, United Kingdom Ambassador John W. Davis, New Jersey Governor Edward I. Edwards, and Oklahoma Senator Robert Latham Owen.

(1-22) Presidential Ballot

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd

James M. Cox 134 159 177 178 181 195 295.5 315 321.5 321 332 404 428.5 443.5 468.5 454.5 442 458 468 456.5 426.5 430

William Gibbs McAdoo 266 289 323.5 335 357 368.5 384 380 386 285 380 375.5 363.5 355.5 344.5 337 332 330.5 327.5 340.5 395.5 372.5

A. Mitchell Palmer 256 264 251.5 254 244 265 267 262 257 257 255 201 193.5 181 167 164.5 176 174.5 179.5 178 144 166.5

Alfred E. Smith 109 101 92 96 95 98 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Edward I. Edwards 42 34 32.5 31 31 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Thomas R. Marshall 37 36 36 34 29 13 14 12 7 7 7 7 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Robert L. Owen 33 29 22 32 34 36 35 36 37 37 35 34 32 34 31 34 36 38 37 41 36 35

John W. Davis 32 31.5 28.5 31 29 29 33 32 32 34 33 31.5 29.5 33 32 52 57 42 31 36 54 52

Edwin T. Meredith 27 26 26 28 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Carter Glass 26.5 25.5 27 27 27 27 27 27 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 27 26 26 26 26 25

Homer Cummings 25 27 26 24 21 20 19 18 18 19 19 8 7 7 19 20 19 19 19 10 7 6

Furnifold M. Simmons 24 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

James W. Gerard 21 12 11 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

John Sharp Williams 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Gilbert M. Hitchcock 18 16 16 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Champ Clark 9 6 7 8 9 7 8 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2

Pat Harrison 6 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Leonard Wood 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

William Jennings Bryan 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Bainbridge Colby 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Josephus Daniels 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

William Randolph Hearst 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Oscar Underwood 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Woodrow Wilson 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

(23-44) Presidential Ballot

23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th

James M. Cox 425 429 424 424.5 423.5 423 404.5 400.5 391.5 391 380.5 379.5 376.5 377 386 383.5 468.5 490 497.5 540.5 568 699.5

William Gibbs McAdoo 364.5 364.5 364.5 371 371.5 368.5 394.5 403.5 415.5 421 421 420.5 409 399 405 405.5 440 467 460 427 412 270

A. Mitchell Palmer 181.5 177 169 167 166.5 165.5 166 165 174 176 180 184 222 241 202.5 211 74 19 12 8 7 1

John W. Davis 50.5 54.5 58.5 55.5 60.5 62.5 63 58 57.5 55.5 56 54 33 28 50.5 50 71.5 76 55.5 49.5 57.5 52

Robert L. Owen 34 33 34 33 34 35.5 33 33 34 34 34 37 38.5 36 33 33 32 33 35 34 34 34

Carter Glass 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 12.5 9.5 13 7.5 5 4 1 1 0 0 24 24 5.5 1.5

Homer Cummings 5 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 2 0

Champ Clark 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 0

Annette Abbott Adams 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Eugene C. Bonniwell 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

William Jennings Bryan 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Laura Clay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Irvin S. Cobb 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Bainbridge Colby 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

Josephus Daniels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Walker Hines 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Andrieus A. Jones 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ring Lardner 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

James H. Lewis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Thomas R. Marshall 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

John J. Pershing 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Joseph T. Robinson 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Cora Wilson Stewart 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Oscar Underwood 0 1 9 9 4 6 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Other candidates[edit] Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs received 913,664 popular votes (3.4 percent), despite the fact that he was in prison at the time for advocating non-compliance with the draft during World War I. This was the largest number of popular votes ever received by a Socialist Party candidate in the United States, although not the largest percentage of the popular vote. Debs received double this percentage in the election of 1912.[3] The 1920 election was Debs’ fifth and last attempt to become president. Parley P. Christensen of the Farmer-Labor Party took 265,411 votes (1.0%), while Prohibition Party candidate Aaron S. Watkins came in fifth with 189,339 votes (0.7%), the poorest showing for the Prohibition party since 1884. Since the Eighteenth Amendment, which initiated the period of Prohibition in the United States, had passed the previous year, this single-issue party seemed less relevant. James E. Ferguson, a former Governor of Texas, announced his candidacy on April 21, 1920 in Temple, Texas under the badge of “American Party”.[4] Ferguson was opposed to Democrats whom he saw as too controlled by elite academic interests as seen when Woodrow Wilson endorsed rival Thomas H. Ball in the gubernatorial primary, and hoped to help the Republicans carry Texas for the first time (Texas never went Republican during Reconstruction).[5] Initially Ferguson and running mate William J. Hough hoped to carry their campaign to other states,[6] but Ferguson was unable to get on the ballot anywhere outside of Texas. Ferguson did manage to gain almost ten percent of the vote in Texas, and won eleven counties in the southeast of the state.[7] General election[edit] Return to normalcy[edit] See also: Normalcy Warren Harding's main campaign slogan was a "return to normalcy", playing upon the weariness of the American public after the social upheaval of the Progressive Era. Additionally, the international responsibilities engendered by the American victory in World War I and the Treaty of Versailles proved deeply unpopular, causing a reaction against Wilson, who had pushed especially hard for the latter. Ethnic issues[edit] Main articles: Irish Race Conventions and Hindu–German Conspiracy Trial

Poster for the 1920 Democratic presidential ticket

Irish Americans were powerful in the Democratic party, and groups such as Clan na Gael opposed going to war alongside their enemy Britain, especially after the violent suppression of the Easter Rising of 1916. Wilson won them over in 1917 by promising to ask Britain to give Ireland its independence. Wilson had won the presidential election of 1916 with strong support from German-Americans and Irish-Americans, largely because of his slogan "He kept us out of war" and the longstanding American policy of isolationism. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, however, he reneged on his commitments to the Irish-American community, and it vehemently denounced him. His dilemma was that Britain was his war ally. Events such as the anti-British Black Tom and Kingsland Explosions in 1916 on American soil (in part the result of wartime Irish and German co-ordination) and the Irish anti-conscription crisis of 1918 were all embarrassing to recall in 1920.[8][9] Britain had already passed an Irish Home Rule Act in 1914, suspended for the war's duration. However the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin had led to increased support for the more radical Sinn Féin who in 1919 formed the First Dáil, effectively declaring Ireland independent, sparking the Irish War of Independence. Britain was to pass the Government of Ireland Act in late 1920, by which Ireland would have 2 home-ruled states within the British empire. This satisfied Wilson. The provisions of these were inadequate to the supporters of the Irish Republic, however, which claimed full sovereignty. This position was also supported by many Irish Americans. The American Committee for Relief in Ireland was set up in 1920 to assist victims of the Irish War of Independence of 1919–21. Some Irish-American Senators joined the "irreconcilables" who blocked the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and United States membership in the League of Nations. Wilson blamed the Irish Americans and German Americans for the lack of popular support for his unsuccessful campaign to have the United States join the League of Nations, saying, "There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say—I cannot say too often—any man who carries a hyphen about with him [i.e., a hyphenated American] carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready."[10] Of the $5,500,000 raised by supporters of the Irish Republic in the United States in 1919–20, the Dublin parliament (Dáil Éireann) voted in June 1920 to spend $500,000 on the American presidential election.[11] How this money was spent remains unclear. Ironically, the lawyer who had advised the fundraisers was Franklin D. Roosevelt, the losing vice-presidential candidate. In any case, the Irish American city machines sat on their hands during the election, allowing the Republicans to roll up unprecedented landslides in every major city. Many German-American Democrats voted Republican or stayed home, giving the GOP landslides in the rural Midwest. Campaign[edit]

Roosevelt and Cox at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C.

Wilson had hoped for a "solemn referendum" on the League of Nations, but did not get one. Harding waffled on the League, thereby keeping Idaho Senator William Borah and other Republican "irreconcilables" in line. Cox also hedged. He went to the White House to seek Wilson's blessing and apparently endorsed the League, but—upon discovering its unpopularity among Democrats—revised his position to one that would accept the League only with reservations, particularly on Article Ten, which would require the United States to participate in any war declared by the League (thus taking the same standpoint as Republican Senate leader Henry Cabot Lodge). As reporter Brand Whitlock observed, the League was an issue important in government circles, but rather less so to the electorate. He also noted that the campaign was not being waged on issues: "The people, indeed, do not know what ideas Harding or Cox represents; neither do Harding or Cox. Great is democracy."[12] False rumors circulated that Senator Harding had "Negro blood," but this did not greatly hurt Harding's election campaign. Governor Cox made a whirlwind campaign that took him to rallies, train station speeches, and formal addresses, reaching audiences totaling perhaps two million, whereas Senator Harding relied upon a "Front Porch Campaign" similar to that of William McKinley in 1896. It brought thousands of voters to Marion, Ohio, where Harding spoke from his home. GOP campaign manager Will Hays spent some $8.1 million, nearly four times the money Cox's campaign spent. Hays used national advertising in a major way (with advice from adman Albert Lasker). The theme was Harding's own slogan "America First." Thus the Republican advertisement in Collier's Magazine for October 30, 1920, demanded, "Let's be done with wiggle and wobble." The image presented in the ads was nationalistic, using catch phrases like "absolute control of the United States by the United States," "Independence means independence, now as in 1776," "This country will remain American. Its next President will remain in our own country," and "We decided long ago that we objected to foreign government of our people."[13] On election night, November 2, 1920, commercial radio broadcast coverage of election returns for the first time. Announcers at KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh read telegraph ticker results over the air as they came in. This single station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small percentage of the population that had radio receivers. Harding's landslide came from all directions except the South. Irish- and German-American voters who had backed Wilson and peace in 1916 now voted against Wilson and Versailles. "A vote for Harding", said the German-language press, "is a vote against the persecutions suffered by German-Americans during the war." Not one major German-language newspaper supported Governor Cox.[14] Many Irish Americans, bitterly angry at Wilson's refusal to help Ireland at Versailles, simply abstained from voting in the presidential election. This allowed the Republicans to mobilize the ethnic vote, and Harding swept the big cities.

Clifford Berryman's cartoon depiction of Eugene V. Debs' campaign from prison.

This was the first election in which women from every state were allowed to vote, following the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in August 1920 (just in time for the general election). Tennessee’s vote for Warren G. Harding marked the first time since the end of Reconstruction that even one of the eleven states of the former Confederacy had voted for a Republican presidential candidate. Tennessee had last been carried by a Republican when Ulysses S. Grant claimed it in 1868. Despite the fact that Cox was defeated badly, his running mate Franklin D. Roosevelt became a well-known political figure because of his active and energetic campaign. In 1928 he was elected Governor of New York, and in 1932 he was elected president. He remained in power until his death in 1945 as the longest-serving American president in history. Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Harding (Republican), shades of blue are for Cox (Democratic), shades of green are for Ferguson (American),[7] grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood.[15]

The total vote for 1920 was roughly 26,750,000, an increase of eight million from 1916.[16] The Democratic vote was almost exactly the vote from 1916, but the Republican vote nearly doubled, as did the “other” vote. As pointed out earlier, the great increase in the total number of votes is mainly attributable to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nearly two-thirds of the counties (1,949) were carried by the Republicans. The Democrats carried only 1,101 counties, a smaller number than Alton Parker had carried in 1904 and consequently the smallest number during the Fourth Party System. Not a single county was carried by the Democrats in the Pacific section, where they had carried 76 in 1916. In the Mountain section Cox carried only thirteen counties, seven of them located in New Mexico bordering Texas, whereas Wilson carried all but twenty-one Mountain Section counties in 1916. At least one county was lost in every section in the Union and in every state except South Carolina and Mississippi. Eleven counties in Texas recorded a plurality for Ferguson,[7] whilst seven counties – a decrease of two from 1916 – did not record a single vote due to black disenfranchisement[citation needed] or being inhabited solely by Native Americans who had not yet gained full citizenship. The distribution of the county vote accurately represents the overwhelming character of the majority vote. Harding received 60.35 percent of the total vote, the largest percentage in the Fourth Party System, exceeding Franklin D. Roosevelt’s in 1932. Although the Democratic share was 34.13 percent, in no section did its voting share sink below 24 percent, and in three sections, the Democrats topped the poll. The Democratic Party was obviously still a significant opposition on national terms, even though Cox won only eleven states and had fewer votes in the electoral college than Parker had won in 1904. More than two-thirds of the Cox vote was in states carried by Harding. This was the last election in which the Democrats won Kentucky until 1932. The distribution of the vote by counties, and the study of percentages in sections, states, and counties, seem to show that it was Wilson and foreign policies that received the brunt of attack, not the Democratic Party and the domestic proposals of the period 1896–1914.[17]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral vote Running mate

Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote

Warren G. Harding Republican Ohio 16,144,093 60.32% 404 Calvin Coolidge Massachusetts 404

James M. Cox Democratic Ohio 9,139,661 34.15% 127 Franklin D. Roosevelt New York 127

Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 913,693 3.41% 0 Seymour Stedman Illinois 0

Parley P. Christensen Farmer-Labor Illinois 265,398 0.99% 0 Max S. Hayes Ohio 0

Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition Indiana 188,787 0.71% 0 D. Leigh Colvin New York 0

James E. Ferguson American Texas 47,968 0.18% 0 William J. Hough New York 0

William Wesley Cox Socialist Labor Missouri 31,084 0.12% 0 August Gillhaus New York 0

Robert Colvin Macauley Single Tax Pennsylvania 5,750 0.02% 0 Richard C. Barnum Ohio 0

Other 28,746 0.11% — Other —

Total 26,765,180 100% 531

531

Needed to win 266

266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1920 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005. 

Popular vote

Harding

60.32%

Cox

34.15%

Debs

3.41%

Christensen

0.99%

Others

1.13%

Electoral vote

Harding

76.08%

Cox

23.92%

Geography of results[edit]

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Cartographic gallery[edit]

Map of presidential election results by county

Map of Republican presidential election results by county

Map of Democratic presidential election results by county

Map of “other” presidential election results by county

Cartogram of presidential election results by county

Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county

Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county

Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Results by state[edit] [18]

States won by Harding/Coolidge

States won by Cox/Roosevelt

Warren G. Harding Republican James Cox Democratic Eugene Debs Socialist Parley Christensen Farmer-Labor Aaron Watkins Prohibition James Ferguson American William Cox Socialist Labor Margin State Total

State electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % electoral votes # % #

Alabama 12 74,556 31.37 - 159,965 67.31 12 2,369 1.00 - - - - 748 0.31 - - - - - - - -85,409 -35.94 237,638 AL

Arizona 3 37,016 55.61 3 29,546 44.39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7,470 11.22 66,562 AZ

Arkansas 9 71,117 38.73 - 107,409 58.49 9 5,111 2.78 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -36,292 -19.76 183,637 AR

California 13 624,992 66.20 13 229,191 24.28 - 64,076 6.79 - - - - 25,204 2.67 - - - - - - - 395,801 41.93 944,050 CA

Colorado 6 173,248 59.32 6 104,936 35.93 - 8,046 2.75 - 3,016 1.03 - 2,807 0.96 - - - - - - - 68,312 23.39 292,053 CO

Connecticut 7 229,238 62.72 7 120,721 33.03 - 10,350 2.83 - 1,947 0.53 - 1,771 0.48 - - - - 1,491 0.41 - 108,517 29.69 365,518 CT

Delaware 3 52,858 55.71 3 39,911 42.07 - 988 1.04 - 93 0.10 - 986 1.04 - - - - - - - 12,947 13.65 94,875 DE

Florida 6 44,853 30.79 - 90,515 62.13 6 5,189 3.56 - - - - 5,124 3.52 - - - - - - - -45,662 -31.34 145,681 FL

Georgia 14 41,089 27.72 - 107,162 72.28 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -66,073 -44.57 148,251 GA

Idaho 4 88,975 65.60 4 46,579 34.34 - 38 0.03 - - - - 32 0.02 - - - - - - - 42,396 31.26 135,624 ID

Illinois 29 1,420,480 67.81 29 534,395 25.51 - 74,747 3.57 - 49,630 2.37 - 11,216 0.54 - - - - 3,471 0.17 - 886,085 42.30 2,094,714 IL

Indiana 15 696,370 55.14 15 511,364 40.49 - 24,703 1.96 - 16,499 1.31 - 13,462 1.07 - - - - - - - 185,006 14.65 1,262,964 IN

Iowa 13 634,674 70.91 13 227,921 25.46 - 16,981 1.90 - 10,321 1.15 - 4,197 0.47 - - - - 982 0.11 - 406,753 45.44 895,082 IA

Kansas 10 369,268 64.75 10 185,464 32.52 - 15,511 2.72 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 183,804 32.23 570,318 KS

Kentucky 13 452,480 49.25 - 456,497 49.69 13 6,409 0.70 - - - - 3,322 0.36 - - - - - - - -4,017 -0.44 918,708 KY

Louisiana 10 38,538 30.49 - 87,519 69.24 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -48,981 -38.75 126,396 LA

Maine 6 136,355 68.92 6 58,961 29.80 - 2,214 1.12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 77,394 39.12 197,840 ME

Maryland 8 236,117 55.11 8 180,626 42.16 - 8,876 2.07 - 1,645 0.38 - - - - - - - 1,178 0.27 - 55,491 12.95 428,443 MD

Massachusetts 18 681,153 68.55 18 276,691 27.84 - 32,267 3.25 - - - - - - - - - - 3,583 0.36 - 404,462 40.70 993,718 MA

Michigan 15 762,865 72.76 15 233,450 22.27 - 28,947 2.76 - 10,480 1.00 - 9,646 0.92 - - - - 2,539 0.24 - 529,415 50.50 1,048,411 MI

Minnesota 12 519,421 70.59 12 142,994 19.43 - 56,106 7.62 - - - - 11,489 1.56 - - - - 5,828 0.79 - 376,427 51.16 735,838 MN

Mississippi 10 11,576 14.03 - 69,277 83.98 10 1,639 1.99 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -57,701 -69.95 82,492 MS

Missouri 18 727,162 54.56 18 574,799 43.13 - 20,242 1.52 - 3,291 0.25 - 5,142 0.39 - - - - 2,164 0.16 - 152,363 11.43 1,332,800 MO

Montana 4 109,430 61.13 4 57,372 32.05 - - - - 12,204 6.82 - - - - - - - - - - 52,058 29.08 179,006 MT

Nebraska 8 247,498 64.66 8 119,608 31.25 - 9,600 2.51 - - - - 5,947 1.55 - - - - - - - 127,890 33.41 382,743 NE

Nevada 3 15,479 56.92 3 9,851 36.22 - 1,864 6.85 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,628 20.70 27,194 NV

New Hampshire 4 95,196 59.84 4 62,662 39.39 - 1,234 0.78 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32,534 20.45 159,092 NH

New Jersey 14 611,541 67.65 14 256,887 28.42 - 27,141 3.00 - 2,200 0.24 - 4,734 0.52 - - - - 923 0.10 - 354,654 39.23 903,943 NJ

New Mexico 3 57,634 54.68 3 46,668 44.27 - - - - 1,104 1.05 - - - - - - - - - - 10,966 10.40 105,406 NM

New York 45 1,871,167 64.56 45 781,238 26.95 - 203,201 7.01 - 18,413 0.64 - 19,653 0.68 - - - - 4,841 0.17 - 1,089,929 37.60 2,898,513 NY

North Carolina 12 232,848 43.22 - 305,447 56.70 12 446 0.08 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -72,599 -13.48 538,741 NC

North Dakota 5 160,072 77.79 5 37,422 18.19 - 8,282 4.02 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 122,650 59.60 205,776 ND

Ohio 24 1,182,022 58.47 24 780,037 38.58 - 57,147 2.83 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 401,985 19.88 2,021,653 OH

Oklahoma 10 243,831 50.11 10 217,053 44.61 - 25,726 5.29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26,778 5.50 486,610 OK

Oregon 5 143,592 60.20 5 80,019 33.55 - 9,801 4.11 - - - - 3,595 1.51 - - - - 1,515 0.64 - 63,573 26.65 238,522 OR

Pennsylvania 38 1,218,216 65.76 38 503,843 27.20 - 70,571 3.81 - 15,704 0.85 - 42,696 2.30 - - - - 753 0.04 - 714,373 38.56 1,852,616 PA

Rhode Island 5 107,463 63.97 5 55,062 32.78 - 4,351 2.59 - - - - 510 0.30 - - - - 495 0.29 - 52,401 31.19 167,981 RI

South Carolina 9 2,610 3.91 - 64,170 96.05 9 28 0.04 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -61,560 -92.14 66,808 SC

South Dakota 5 110,692 60.74 5 35,938 19.72 - - - - 34,707 19.04 - 900 0.49 - - - - - - - 74,754 41.02 182,237 SD

Tennessee 12 219,829 51.29 12 206,558 48.19 - 2,239 0.52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13,271 3.10 428,626 TN

Texas 20 114,538 23.54 - 288,767 59.34 20 8,121 1.67 - - - - - - - 47,968 9.86 - - - - -174,229 -35.80 486,641 TX

Utah 4 81,555 55.93 4 56,639 38.84 - 3,159 2.17 - 4,475 3.07 - - - - - - - - - - 24,916 17.09 145,828 UT

Vermont 4 68,212 75.82 4 20,919 23.25 - - - - - - - 774 0.86 - - - - - - - 47,293 52.57 89,961 VT

Virginia 12 87,456 37.85 - 141,670 61.32 12 807 0.35 - 243 0.11 - 857 0.37 - - - - - - - -54,214 -23.47 231,033 VA

Washington 7 223,137 55.96 7 84,298 21.14 - 8,913 2.24 - 77,246 19.37 - 3,800 0.95 - - - - 1,321 0.33 - 138,839 34.82 398,715 WA

West Virginia 8 282,007 55.30 8 220,789 43.30 - 5,618 1.10 - - - - 1,528 0.30 - - - - - - - 61,218 12.00 509,942 WV

Wisconsin 13 498,576 71.10 13 113,422 16.17 - 80,635 11.50 - - - - 8,647 1.23 - - - - - - - 385,154 54.92 701,280 WI

Wyoming 3 35,091 64.15 3 17,429 31.86 - - - - 2,180 3.99 - - - - - - - - - - 17,662 32.29 54,700 WY

TOTALS: 531 16,144,093 60.32 404 9,139,661 34.15 127 913,693 3.41 - 265,398 0.99 - 188,787 0.71 - 47,968 0.18 - 31,084 0.12 - 7,004,432 26.17 26,765,180 US

Close states[edit] Margin of victory less than 1% (13 electoral votes):

Kentucky, 0.44%

Margin of victory less than 5% (12 electoral votes):

Tennessee, 3.10%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (10 electoral votes):

Oklahoma, 5.50%

Statistics[edit] Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Republican)

McIntosh County, North Dakota 95.76% Leslie County, Kentucky 94.22% Sevier County, Tennessee 93.60% Sheridan County, North Dakota 92.98% Billings County, North Dakota 92.81%

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Democratic)

Chester County, South Carolina 100.00% Edgefield County, South Carolina 100.00% Clarendon County, South Carolina 100.00% Bamberg County, South Carolina 100.00% Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (American)

Austin County, Texas 61.72% Fort Bend County, Texas 59.35% Lavaca County, Texas 57.76% Fayette County, Texas 55.12% Washington County, Texas 54.04%

See also[edit]

History of the United States (1918–1945) History of the United States Democratic Party History of the United States Republican Party Inauguration of Warren G. Harding United States House elections, 1920 United States Senate elections, 1920

Notes[edit]

^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.  ^ David Leip. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ "1912". President Elect. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ Havel, James T.; The Elections, 1789-1992, p. 106 ISBN 0028646231 ^ Richardson, Darcy G.; Others: “Fighting Bob” La Follette and the Progressive Movement: Third-Party Politics in the 1920s, p. 76-79 ISBN 0595481264 ^ Richardson; Others, p. 81 ^ a b c Scammon, Richard M. (compiler); America at the Polls: A Handbook of Presidential Election Statistics 1920-1964 pp. 426-430, 456 ISBN 0405077114 ^ "The enemy within; the inside story of German sabotage in America : Landau, Henry, b. 1892 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ "Essay by M. Plowman (2009) on the complexities of the "Indo-Irish-German" conspiracy in the USA during the war" (PDF). Lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ American Rhetoric, "Final Address in Support of the League of Nations", Woodrow Wilson, delivered September 25, 1919 in Pueblo, CO. ^ "Dáil Éireann – 29/Jun/1920 MINISTERIAL MOTIONS. - PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN IN U.S.A". Oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie. 2015-02-24. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ Sinclair, p. 168 ^ Sinclair, p. 162 ^ Sinclair, p. 163 ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932 – Google Books. Stanford University Press. 1934. ISBN 9780804716963. Retrieved August 12, 2014.  ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, p. 19 ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896–1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 21 ^ "1920 Presidential General Election Data – National". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 

References[edit]

Bagby, Wesley M. (1962). The Road to Normalcy: The Presidential Campaign and Election of 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.  Boller, Paul F., Jr. (2004). Presidential Campaigns: From George Washington to George W. Bush. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 212–217. ISBN 0-19-516716-3.  Cooper, John Milton (2001). Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80786-7.  Duff, John B. (1970). "German-Americans and the Peace, 1918–1920". American Jewish Historical Quarterly. 59 (4): 424–459. ISSN 0002-9068.  Duff, John B. (1968). "The Versailles Treaty and the Irish-Americans". Journal of American History. Organization of American Historians. 55 (3): 582–598. doi:10.2307/1891015. ISSN 0021-8723. JSTOR 1891015.  McCoy, Donald R. (1971). "The Election of 1920". In Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.; Israel, Fred L. History of American Presidential Elections. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-07-079786-2.  Morello, John A. (2001). Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97030-2.  Pietrusza, David (2007). 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1622-3.  Sinclair, Andrew (1965). The Available Man: The Life behind the Masks of Warren Gamaliel Harding. New York: Macmillan.  "The Presidential Election of 1920". American Leaders Speak: Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 16, 2002. 

Further reading[edit]

Eugene V. Debs, A Word to the Workers! New York: New York Call, n.d. [1920]. —Socialist campaign leaflet.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States presidential election, 1920.

United States presidential election of 1920 at Encyclopædia Britannica Presidential Election of 1920: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress 1920 popular vote by counties 1920 Election Links How close was the 1920 election? — Michael Sheppard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Election of 1920 in Counting the Votes

v t e

(1916 ←) United States presidential election, 1920 (→ 1924)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

James M. Cox

VP nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Candidates

William Gibbs McAdoo A. Mitchell Palmer Al Smith John W. Davis Edward I. Edwards Woodrow Wilson Robert Latham Owen

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Warren G. Harding

VP nominee

Calvin Coolidge

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Leonard Wood Frank Orren Lowden Hiram Johnson William Cameron Sproul Nicholas Murray Butler Calvin Coolidge Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Jeter Connelly Pritchard Miles Poindexter Howard Sutherland Herbert Hoover

Third party and independent candidates

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Nominee

Eugene V. Debs

VP nominee

Seymour Stedman

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Parley P. Christensen

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Max S. Hayes

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Aaron S. Watkins

VP nominee

D. Leigh Colvin

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Nominee

James E. Ferguson

VP nominee

William J. Hough

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Nominee

William Wesley Cox

VP nominee

August Gillhaus

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Nominee

Robert Colvin Macauley

VP nominee

Richard C. Barnum

Other 1920 elections: House Senate

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United States presidential elections

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Socialist Party of America

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v t e

Calvin Coolidge

30th President of the United States (1923–1929) 29th Vice President of the United States (1921–1923) 48th Governor of Massachusetts (1919–1921) 46th Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts (1916–1919)

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Books

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Public image

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Family

Grace Coolidge (wife) John Coolidge (son) John Calvin Coolidge, Sr. (father) Calvin Galusha Coolidge (grandfather) Arthur Brown, Olympia Brown, Charles A. Coolidge (cousins) Marcus A. Coolidge, Arthur W. Coolidge, Martha Coolidge (distant relations) Edmund Rice (ancestor) Rob Roy (family dog)

← Warren G. Harding Herbert Hoover →

Category

v t e

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd President of the United States (1933–1945) 44th Governor of New York (1929–1932) Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913–1920) New York State Senator (1911–1913)

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← Herbert Hoover Harry S. Truman

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