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West Virginia
Virginia
/- vərˈdʒɪniə/ ( listen) is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.[7][8][9][10][11] It is bordered by Virginia
Virginia
to the southeast, Kentucky
Kentucky
to the southwest, Ohio
Ohio
to the northwest, and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland
Maryland
to the northeast. West Virginia
Virginia
is the 10th smallest by area, and is ranked 38th in population. The capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia
Virginia
became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War
American Civil War
had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia
Virginia
decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state.[12] West Virginia
Virginia
was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, and was a key border state during the war. West Virginia
Virginia
was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine
Maine
separated from Massachusetts, and was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War (the other being Nevada). While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, and the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers[7] classify West Virginia
Virginia
as part of the Southern United States. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Ohio, with the West Virginia
Virginia
cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles (110 km) from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio
Ohio
and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry
Harpers Ferry
in the Eastern Panhandle
Eastern Panhandle
region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia. The unique position of West Virginia
Virginia
means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the only state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission; the area is commonly defined as "Appalachia".[13] The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries, and its political and labor history. It is one of the most densely karstic areas in the world, making it a choice area for recreational caving and scientific research.[not verified in body] The karst lands contribute to much of the state's cool trout waters.[not verified in body] It is also known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, fishing, hiking, backpacking, mountain biking, rock climbing, and hunting.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory 1.2 European exploration and settlement 1.3 Trans-Allegheny Virginia 1.4 Separation from Virginia 1.5 Development of natural resources

2 Geography

2.1 Geology and terrain 2.2 Climate 2.3 Adjacent states

3 Demographics

3.1 Birth data 3.2 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Overview 4.2 Tourism 4.3 Resources

4.3.1 Green energy

4.4 Taxes 4.5 Largest private employers

5 Quality of life

5.1 Economy 5.2 Employment 5.3 Wages 5.4 Population 5.5 Family 5.6 Health

6 Governance

6.1 Legislative branch 6.2 Executive branch 6.3 Judicial branch 6.4 Politics

7 Transportation 8 Important cities and towns

8.1 State capitals 8.2 Large cities 8.3 Towns and small cities 8.4 Metropolitan statistical areas 8.5 Micropolitan statistical areas

9 Education

9.1 Colleges and universities

10 Culture

10.1 Sports 10.2 Music

10.2.1 Appalachian music 10.2.2 Classical music 10.2.3 Musical innovation

10.3 Literature 10.4 In popular culture

11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of West Virginia Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, and Romney. The artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture that crafted cold-worked copper pieces. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio
Ohio
Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language
Siouan language
tribes, such as the Moneton, had previously been recorded in the area. A century later, the area now identified as West Virginia
Virginia
was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Virginia
Virginia
claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War. Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company,[14] and later the Ohio
Ohio
Company and Indiana
Indiana
Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia
Virginia
and Kentucky, but failed. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Virginia
Virginia
border dispute, which resulted in the creation of Kentucky, Kentuckians "were satisfied [...], and the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."[15] The Crown considered the area of West Virginia
Virginia
to be part of the British Virginia
Virginia
Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia (which was commonly referred as Trans-Allegheny Virginia) from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia. Its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, and the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature. More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were generally less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more sharply divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia
Virginia
voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, and the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, which was ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain, numerous and vast river valleys, and rich natural resources. These were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small, relatively isolated communities in the mountain valleys. Geography continues to be important to the state. Prehistory[edit] Further information: Prehistory of West Virginia Further information: Protohistory of West Virginia A 2010 analysis of a local stalagmite revealed that Native Americans were burning forests to clear land as early as 100 BC.[16] Some regional late-prehistoric Eastern Woodland tribes were more involved in hunting and fishing, practicing the slash-and-burn Eastern Agricultural Complex gardening method, which used fire to clear out underbrush from certain area.[clarification needed] Another group progressed to the more time-consuming, advanced companion crop fields method of gardening. Also continuing from ancient indigenous people of the state, they cultivated tobacco through to early historic times. It was used in numerous social and religious rituals. " Maize
Maize
(corn) did not make a substantial contribution to the diet until after 1150 BP", to quote Mills (OSU 2003)[full citation needed]. Eventually, tribal villages began depending on corn to feed their turkey flocks, as Kanawha Fort Ancients practiced bird prostitution. The local Indians made corn bread and a flat rye bread called "bannock" as they emerged from the protohistoric era. A horizon extending from a little before the early 18th century is sometimes called the acculturating Fireside Cabin culture. Trading posts were established by European traders along the Potomac and James rivers. Tribes which inhabited West Virginia
Virginia
as of the year 1600 were the Siouan Monongahela Culture
Monongahela Culture
to the north, the Fort Ancient
Fort Ancient
culture along the Ohio
Ohio
River from the Monongahela to Kentucky
Kentucky
and extending an unknown distance inland [17] & the Eastern Siouan Tutelo & Moneton
Moneton
tribes in the southeast. There was also the Iroquoian Susquehannock
Susquehannock
in the region approximately east of the Monongahela River and north of the Monongahela National Forest, a possible tribe called the Senandoa, or Shenandoah, in the Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley
& the eastern-most tip of the state may have been home to the Manahoac people. The Monongahela may have been the same as a people known as the Calicua, or Cali. [18] The following may have also all been the same tribe-- Moneton, Moheton, Senandoa, Tomahitan. During the Beaver Wars, other tribes moved into the region. There was the Iroquoian Tiontatecaga (also Little Mingo, Guyandotte), [19] who seem to have split off from the Petun after they were defeated by the Iroquois. They eventually settled somewhere between the Kanawha & Little Kanawha Rivers. During the 1750s, when the Mingo Seneca seceded from the Iroquois
Iroquois
and returned to the Ohio
Ohio
River Valley, they contend that this tribe merged with them. The Shawnee
Shawnee
arrived as well, but were primarily stationed within former Monongahela territory approximately until 1750, however they did extend their influence throughout the Ohio
Ohio
River region. They were the last Native tribe of West Virginia
Virginia
and were driven out by the United States
United States
during the Shawnee
Shawnee
Wars (1811-1813). The Erie, who were chased out of Ohio
Ohio
around 1655, are now believed to be the same as the Westo, who invaded as far as South Carolina
South Carolina
before being destroyed in the 1680s. If so, their path would have brought them through West Virginia
Virginia
& the historical movement of the Tutelo, [20] as well as Carbon dating for the Fort Ancients seem to correspond with the given period of 1655-1670 as the time of their removal. [21] The Susquehannocks were original participants of the Beaver Wars, but were cut off from the Ohio
Ohio
River by the Iroquois
Iroquois
around 1630 and found themselves in dire straights. From disease, constant warfare and an inability to provide for themselves financially, they began to collapse and moved further and further east, to the Susquehanna River of Eastern Pennsylvania. [22] The Manahoac were probably forced out in the 1680s, when the Iroquois
Iroquois
began to invade Virginia. [23] The Siouan tribes there moved into North Carolina
North Carolina
& later returned as one tribe, known as the Eastern Blackfoot, or Christannas. [24] The Westo did not secure the territory they conquered. Before they were even gone, displaced natives from the south flooded into freshly conquered regions and took them over. [25] These became known as the Shattaras, or West Virginia
Virginia
Cherokees. They took in and merged with the Monetons, who began to refer to themselves as the Mohetons. The Calicua also began to refer to themselves as Cherokees soon after, showing an apparent further merger. These Shattaras were closely related to the tribes which formed to the south in the aftermath of the Westo-- the Yuchi & Cherokee. From 1715-1717, the Yamasee War sprang up. The Senandoa allegedly sided with the Yuchi and were destroyed by Yamasee allies. [26] Therefore, if the Senandoa were the same tribe as the Moneton, this would mean the collapse of Shattara- Moneton
Moneton
culture. Another tribe who appeared in the region were the Canaragay, or Kanawha. [27] They later migrated to Maryland and merged into colonial culture. European exploration and settlement[edit] Further information: Vandalia (colony)
Vandalia (colony)
and Westsylvania

Thomas Lee, the first manager of the Ohio
Ohio
Company of Virginia.

In 1671, General Abraham Wood, at the direction of Royal Governor William Berkeley of the Virginia
Virginia
Colony, sent a party from Fort Henry led by Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam to survey this territory. They were the first Europeans recorded as discovering Kanawha Falls. Some sources state that Governor Alexander Spotswood's 1716 Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition (for which the state's Golden Horseshoe Competition for 8th graders was named) had penetrated as far as Pendleton County; however, modern historians interpret the original accounts of the excursion as suggesting that none of the expedition's horsemen ventured much farther west of the Blue
Blue
Ridge Mountains than Harrisonburg, Virginia. John Van Metre, an Indian trader, penetrated into the northern portion in 1725. The same year, German settlers from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
founded New Mecklenburg, the present Shepherdstown, on the Potomac River, and others followed. King Charles II of England, in 1661, granted to a company of gentlemen the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, known as the Northern Neck. Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron
Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron
ultimately took possession of this grant, and in 1746, a stone was erected at the source of the North Branch Potomac River
Potomac River
to mark the western limit of his grant. A considerable part of this land was surveyed by the young George Washington
George Washington
between 1748 and 1751. The diary kept by Washington recorded that there were already many squatters, largely of German origin, along the South Branch Potomac River. Christopher Gist, a surveyor in the employ of the first Ohio
Ohio
Company, which was composed chiefly of Virginians, explored the country along the Ohio
Ohio
River north of the mouth of the Kanawha River
Kanawha River
between 1751 and 1752. The company sought to have a fourteenth colony established with the name "Vandalia". Many settlers crossed the mountains after 1750, though they were hindered by Native American resistance. Few Native Americans lived permanently within the present limits of the state, but the region was a common hunting ground, crossed by many trails. During the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(the North American front of the Seven Years' War in Europe), Indian allies of the French nearly destroyed the scattered British settlements. Shortly before the American Revolutionary War, in 1774 the Crown Governor of Virginia
Virginia
John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, led a force over the mountains. A body of militia under then-Colonel Andrew Lewis dealt the Shawnee
Shawnee
Indians, under Hokoleskwa (or "Cornstalk"), a crushing blow during the Battle of Point Pleasant
Battle of Point Pleasant
at the junction of the Kanawha and the Ohio
Ohio
rivers. At the Treaty of Camp Charlotte concluding Dunmore's War, Cornstalk
Cornstalk
agreed to recognize the Ohio
Ohio
River as the new boundary with the "Long Knives". By 1776, however, the Shawnee
Shawnee
had returned to war, joining the Chickamauga, a band of Cherokee
Cherokee
known for the area where they lived. Native American attacks on settlers continued until after the American Revolutionary War. During the war, the settlers in western Virginia
Virginia
were generally active Whigs and many served in the Continental Army. However, Claypool's Rebellion of 1780–1781, in which a group of men refused to pay taxes imposed by the Continental Army, showed war-weariness in what became West Virginia. Trans-Allegheny Virginia[edit] See also: History of slavery in West Virginia Further information: Virginia

A celebration at a slave wedding in Virginia, 1838

Social conditions in western Virginia
Virginia
were entirely unlike those in the eastern portion of the state. The population was not homogeneous, as a considerable part of the immigration came by way of Pennsylvania and included Germans, Protestant
Protestant
Scotch-Irish, and settlers from the states farther north. Counties in the east and south were settled mostly by east Virginians. During the American Revolution, the movement to create a state beyond the Alleghenies was revived and a petition for the establishment of "Westsylvania" was presented to Congress, on the grounds that the mountains presented an almost impassable barrier to the east. The rugged nature of the country made slavery unprofitable, and time only increased the social, political, economic, and cultural differences (see Tuckahoe-Cohee) between the two sections of Virginia.[citation needed] A convention that met in 1829 to form a new constitution for Virginia, against the protest of the counties beyond the mountains, required a property qualification for suffrage. This effectively disenfranchised some of the poorer yeoman farmers. In addition, it gave the slave-holding counties the benefit of three-fifths of their slave population in apportioning the state's representation in the U.S. House of Representatives. As a result, every county beyond the Alleghenies except one voted to reject the constitution, which nevertheless passed because of eastern support. The eastern planter elite dominated the legislature and saw to their own interests.[citation needed] The Virginia
Virginia
Constitutional Convention of 1850–51, the Reform Convention, addressed a number of issues important to western Virginians. It extended the vote to all White males 21 years or older. The governor, lieutenant-governor, the judiciary, sheriffs, and other county officers were to be elected by public vote. The composition of the General Assembly was changed. Representation in the house of delegates was apportioned on the basis of the census of 1850, counting Whites only. The Senate representation was arbitrarily fixed at 50 seats, with the west receiving twenty, and the east thirty senators. This was made acceptable to the west by a provision that required the General Assembly to reapportion representation on the basis of White population in 1865, or else put the matter to a public referendum. But the east also gave itself a tax advantage in requiring a property tax at true and actual value, except for slaves. Slaves under the age of 12 years were not taxed and slaves over that age were taxed at only $300, a fraction of their true value. Small farmers, however, had all their assets, animals, and land taxed at full value. Despite this tax and the lack of internal improvements in the west, the vote was 75,748 for and 11,063 against the new Constitution. Most of the opposition came from delegates from eastern counties, who did not like the compromises made for the west.[28] Given these differences, many in the west had long contemplated a separate state. In particular, men such as lawyer Francis H. Pierpont from Fairmont, had long chafed under the political domination of the Tidewater and Piedmont slave-holders. In addition to differences over the abolition of slavery, he and allies felt the Virginia
Virginia
government ignored and refused to spend funds on needed internal improvements in the west, such as turnpikes and railroads.[29] Separation from Virginia[edit] See also: State of Kanawha
State of Kanawha
and West Virginia
Virginia
in the American Civil War

Francis H. Pierpont, a leader during the Second Wheeling Convention

On October 24, 1861, when voters from 41 counties voted to form a new state, voter turnout was 34%. The name was subsequently changed from Kanawha to West Virginia.[30]

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Walks at Midnight, a statue on the grounds of the West Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol

Harpers Ferry
Harpers Ferry
(pictured here as it appeared in 2005) changed hands a dozen times during the American Civil War
American Civil War
and was annexed by West Virginia.

Statehood vote of October 24, 1861

West Virginia
Virginia
was the only state in the Union to separate from a Confederate state (Virginia) during the American Civil War.[31] In Richmond on April 17, 1861, the Virginia
Virginia
Secession Convention of 1861 voted to secede from the Union, but of the 49 delegates from the northwestern corner (which ultimately became West Virginia) only 17 voted in favor of the Ordinance of Secession, while 30 voted against[32] (with 2 abstentions).[33] Almost immediately after that vote, a mass meeting at Clarksburg recommended that each county in northwestern Virginia
Virginia
send delegates to a convention to meet in Wheeling on May 13, 1861. When this First Wheeling Convention
Wheeling Convention
met, 425 delegates from 25 counties were present, though more than one-third of the delegates were from the northern panhandle area,[34] but soon there was a division of sentiment. Some delegates led by John S. Carlile
John S. Carlile
favored the immediate formation of a new state, while others led by Waitman Willey
Waitman Willey
argued that, as Virginia's secession had not yet been passed by the required referendum (as happened on May 23), such action would constitute revolution against the United States.[35] The convention decided that if Virginians adopted the secession ordinance (of which there was little doubt), another convention including the members-elect of the legislature would meet in Wheeling in June 1861. On May 23, 1861, secession was ratified by a large majority in Virginia
Virginia
as a whole, but in the western counties 34,677 voted against and 19,121 voted for the Ordinance.[36] The Second Wheeling Convention
Wheeling Convention
met as agreed on June 11 and declared that, since the Secession Convention had been called without popular consent, all its acts were void and that all who adhered to it had vacated their offices. The Wheeling Conventions, and the delegates themselves, were never actually elected by public ballot to act on behalf of western Virginia.[37] Of its 103 members, 33 had been elected to the Virginia
Virginia
General Assembly[38] on May 23. This included some hold-over state senators whose four-year terms had begun in 1859, and some who vacated their offices to convene in Wheeling. Other members "were chosen even more irregularly—some in mass meetings, others by county committee, and still others were seemingly self-appointed"[39] An act for the reorganization of the government was passed on June 19. The next day convention delegates chose Francis H. Pierpont as governor of Virginia, and elected other officers to a rival state government and two U.S. senators (Willey and Carlile) to replace secessionists before adjourning. The federal government in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
promptly recognized the new government and seated the two new senators. Thus, there were two state governments in Virginia: one pledging allegiance to the United States
United States
and one to the Confederacy. The second Wheeling Convention
Wheeling Convention
had recessed until August 6, then reassembled on August 20 and called for a popular vote on the formation of a new state and for a convention to frame a constitution if the vote should be favorable. At the October 24, 1861 election, 18,408 votes were cast for the new state and only 781 against. The election results were questioned, since the Union army then occupied the area and Union troops were stationed at many of the polls to prevent Confederate sympathizers from voting.[40] This was also election day for local offices, and elections were also held in camps of Confederate soldiers, who elected rival state officials, such as Robert E. Cowan. Most pro-statehood votes came from 16 counties around the Northern panhandle.[41] Over 50,000 votes had been cast on the Ordinance of Secession, yet the vote on statehood garnered little more than 19,000.[42] In Ohio
Ohio
County, home to Wheeling, only about one-quarter of the registered voters cast votes.[43] In most of what would become West Virginia, there was no vote at all, since as two-thirds of the territory of West Virginia
Virginia
had voted for secession and county officers remained loyal to Richmond. Votes recorded from pro-secession counties were mostly cast elsewhere by Unionist refugees from these counties.[44] Despite that controversy, delegates (including many Methodist ministers) met to write a new Constitution for the new state, beginning on November 26, 1861. During that constitutional convention, a Mr. Lamb of Ohio
Ohio
County and a Mr. Carskadon claimed that in Hampshire County, out of 195 votes only 39 were cast by citizens of the state; the rest were cast illegally by Union soldiers.[45] One of the key figures was Rev. Gordon Battelle, who also represented Ohio County, and who proposed resolutions to establish public schools, as well as to limit movement of slaves into the new state, and to gradually abolish slavery. The education proposal succeeded, but the convention tabled the slavery proposals before finishing its work on February 18, 1862. The new constitution was more closely modeled on that of Ohio
Ohio
than of Virginia, adopting a township model of government rather than the "courthouse cliques" of Virginia
Virginia
which Carlile criticized, and a compromise demanded by the Kanawha region (Charleston lawyers Benjamin Smith and Brown) allowed counties and municipalities to vote subsidies for railroads or other improvement organizations.[46] The resulting instrument was ratified (18,162 for and 514 against) on April 11, 1862. On May 13, 1862 the state legislature of the reorganized government approved the formation of the new state. An application for admission to the Union was made to Congress, introduced by Senator Waitman Willey of the Restored Government of Virginia. However, Sen. Carlile sought to sabotage the bill, first trying to expand the new state's boundaries to include the Shenandoah Valley, and then to defeat the Willey amendment at home.[47] On December 31, 1862, an enabling act was approved by President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
admitting West Virginia, on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in its constitution (as Rev. Battelle had urged in the Wheeling Intelligencer and also written to Lincoln). While many felt that West Virginia's admission as a state was both illegal and unconstitutional, Lincoln issued his Opinion on the Admission of West Virginia
Virginia
finding that "the body which consents to the admission of West Virginia
Virginia
is the Legislature
Legislature
of Virginia", and that its admission was therefore both constitutional and expedient.[48] The convention was reconvened on February 12, 1863, and the abolition demand of the federal enabling act was met. The revised constitution was adopted on March 26, 1863 and on April 20, 1863, President Lincoln issued a proclamation admitting the state 60 days later on June 20, 1863. Meanwhile, officers for the new state were chosen, while Gov. Pierpont moved his pro-Union Virginia
Virginia
capital to Union-occupied Alexandria, where he asserted and exercised jurisdiction over all of the remaining Virginia
Virginia
counties within the federal lines. The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was later brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner: Berkeley and Jefferson counties lying on the Potomac east of the mountains, in 1863, with the consent of the reorganized government of Virginia
Virginia
voted in favor of annexation to West Virginia. Many voters of the strongly pro-secessionist counties were absent in the Confederate Army when the vote was taken and refused to acknowledge the transfer when they returned. The Virginia
Virginia
General Assembly repealed the act of secession and, in 1866, brought suit against West Virginia
Virginia
asking the court to declare the counties a part of Virginia, which would have declared West Virginia's admission as a state unconstitutional. Meanwhile, on March 10, 1866, Congress passed a joint resolution recognizing the transfer. The Supreme Court decided in favor of West Virginia
Virginia
in 1870.[49] During the Civil War, Union General George B. McClellan's forces gained possession of the greater part of the territory in the summer of 1861, culminating at the Battle of Rich Mountain, and Union control was never again seriously threatened, despite an attempt by Robert E. Lee in the same year. In 1863, General John D. Imboden, with 5,000 Confederates, raided a considerable portion of the state and burned Pierpont's library, although Senator Willey escaped their grasp. Bands of guerrillas burned and plundered in some sections, and were not entirely suppressed until after the war ended. The Eastern Panhandle counties were more affected by the war, with military control of the area repeatedly changing hands. The area that became West Virginia
Virginia
actually furnished about an equal number of soldiers to the federal and Confederate armies,[50] approximately 22,000–25,000 each. In 1865, the Wheeling government found it necessary to strip voting rights from returning Confederates in order to retain control. James Ferguson, who proposed the law, said that if it was not enacted he would lose election by 500 votes.[51] The property of Confederates might also be confiscated, and in 1866 a constitutional amendment disfranchising all who had given aid and comfort to the Confederacy was adopted. The addition of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States
United States
Constitution caused a reaction. The Democratic party secured control in 1870, and in 1871, the constitutional amendment of 1866 was abrogated. The first steps toward this change had been taken, however, by the Republicans in 1870. On August 22, 1872, an entirely new constitution was adopted. Beginning in Reconstruction, and for several decades thereafter, the two states disputed the new state's share of the pre-war Virginia government's debts, which had mostly been incurred to finance public infrastructure improvements, such as canals, roads, and railroads under the Virginia
Virginia
Board of Public Works. Virginians—led by former Confederate General William Mahone—formed a political coalition based upon this: the Readjuster Party. Although West Virginia's first constitution provided for the assumption of a part of the Virginia debt, negotiations opened by Virginia
Virginia
in 1870 were fruitless, and in 1871, Virginia
Virginia
funded two-thirds of the debt and arbitrarily assigned the remainder to West Virginia. The issue was finally settled in 1915, when the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
ruled that West Virginia owed Virginia
Virginia
$12,393,929.50.[52] The final installment of this sum was paid in 1939. Development of natural resources[edit]

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Child labor in the coal mines of West Virginia, 1908, by Lewis Hine

Family of coal miner in West Virginia
Virginia
c. 1935

Saturday afternoon street scene, Welch, McDowell County, 1946

After Reconstruction, the new 35th state benefited from the development of its mineral resources more than any other single economic activity. Saltpeter caves had been employed throughout Appalachia
Appalachia
for munitions; the border between West Virginia
Virginia
and Virginia
Virginia
includes the "Saltpeter Trail", a string of limestone caverns containing rich deposits of calcium nitrate that were rendered and sold to the government. The trail stretched from Pendleton County to the western terminus of the route in the town of Union, Monroe County. Nearly half of these caves are on the West Virginia
Virginia
side, including Organ Cave
Cave
and Haynes Cave. In the late 18th-century, saltpeter miners in Haynes Cave
Cave
found large animal bones in the deposits. These were sent by a local historian and frontier soldier Colonel John Stuart to Thomas Jefferson. The bones were named Megalonyx jeffersonii, or great-claw, and became known as Jefferson's three-toed sloth. It was declared the official state fossil of West Virginia
Virginia
in 2008. The West Virginia
Virginia
official state rock is bituminous coal,[53] and the official state gemstone is silicified Mississippian fossil Lithostrotionella coral.[54] The limestone also produced a useful quarry industry, usually small, and softer, high-calcium seams were burned to produce industrial lime. This lime was used for agricultural and construction purposes; for many years a specific portion of the C & O Railroad
Railroad
carried limestone rock to Clifton Forge, Virginia
Virginia
as an industrial flux. Salt
Salt
mining had been underway since the 18th century, though it had largely played out by the time of the American Civil War, when the red salt of Kanawha County was a valued commodity of first Confederate, and later Union, forces. In years following, more sophisticated mining methods would restore West Virginia's role as a major producer of salt. However, in the second half of the 19th century, there was an even greater treasure not yet developed: bituminous coal. It would fuel much of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in the U.S. and the steamships of many of the world's navies. The residents (both Native Americans and early European settlers) had long known of the underlying coal, and that it could be used for heating and fuel. However, for a long time, very small "personal" mines were the only practical development. After the War, with the new railroads came a practical method to transport large quantities of coal to expanding U.S. and export markets. As the anthracite mines of northwestern New Jersey
New Jersey
and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
began to play out during this same time period, investors and industrialists focused new interest in West Virginia. Geologists such as Dr. David T. Ansted
David T. Ansted
surveyed potential coal fields and invested in land and early mining projects. The completion of the Chesapeake and Ohio
Ohio
Railway (C&O) across the state to the new city of Huntington on the Ohio
Ohio
River in 1872 opened access to the New River Coal
Coal
Field. Soon, the C&O was building its huge coal pier at Newport News, Virginia
Virginia
on the large harbor of Hampton Roads. In 1881, the new Philadelphia-based owners of the former Atlantic, Mississippi
Mississippi
and Ohio
Ohio
Railroad
Railroad
(AM&O), which stretched across Virginia's southern tier from Norfolk, had sights clearly set on the Mountain State, where the owners had large land holdings. Their railroad was renamed Norfolk and Western
Norfolk and Western
(N&W), and a new railroad city was developed at Roanoke to handle planned expansion. After its new president Frederick J. Kimball and a small party journeyed by horseback and saw firsthand the rich bituminous coal seam, which Kimball's wife named Pocahontas, the N&W redirected its planned westward expansion to reach it. Soon, the N&W was also shipping from new coal piers at Hampton Roads. In 1889, in the southern part of the state, along the Norfolk and Western rail lines, the important coal center of Bluefield, West Virginia
Virginia
was founded. The "capital" of the Pocahontas coalfield, this city would remain the largest city in the southern portion of the state for several decades. It shares a sister city with the same name, Bluefield, in Virginia. In the northern portion of the state and elsewhere, the older Baltimore and Ohio
Ohio
Railroad
Railroad
(B&O) and other lines also expanded to take advantage of coal opportunities. The B&O developed coal piers in Baltimore and at several points on the Great Lakes. Other significant rail carriers of coal were the Western Maryland
Maryland
Railway (WM), Southern Railway (SOU), and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad
Railroad
(L&N). Particularly notable was a latecomer, the Virginian Railway
Virginian Railway
(VGN). By 1900, only a large area of the most rugged terrain of southern West Virginia
Virginia
was any distance from the existing railroads and mining activity. Within this area west of the New River Coalfield in Raleigh and Wyoming
Wyoming
counties lay the Winding Gulf Coalfield, later promoted as the "Billion Dollar Coalfield." A protégé of Dr. Ansted was William Nelson Page (1854–1932), a civil engineer and mining manager in Fayette County. Former West Virginia
Virginia
Governor William A. MacCorkle
William A. MacCorkle
described him as a man who knew the land "as a farmer knows a field." Beginning in 1898, Page teamed with northern and European-based investors to take advantage of the undeveloped area. They acquired large tracts of land in the area, and Page began the Deepwater Railway, a short-line railroad chartered to stretch between the C&O at its line along the Kanawha River
Kanawha River
and the N&W at Matoaka—a distance of about 80 miles (130 km). Although the Deepwater plan should have provided a competitive shipping market via either railroad, leaders of the two large railroads did not appreciate the scheme. In secret collusion, each declined to negotiate favorable rates with Page, nor did they offer to purchase his railroad, as they had many other short-lines. However, if the C&O and N&W presidents thought they could thus kill the Page project, they were to be proved mistaken. One of the silent partner investors Page had enlisted was millionaire industrialist Henry Huttleston Rogers, a principal in John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Trust and an old hand at developing natural resources and transportation. A master at competitive "warfare", Henry Rogers did not like to lose in his endeavors and also had "deep pockets". Instead of giving up, Page (and Rogers) quietly planned and then built their tracks all the way east across Virginia, using Rogers' private fortune to finance the $40-million cost. When the renamed Virginian Railway (VGN) was completed in 1909, no fewer than three railroads were shipping ever-increasing volumes of coal to export from Hampton Roads. West Virginia
Virginia
coal was also under high demand at Great Lakes ports. The VGN and the N&W ultimately became parts of the modern Norfolk Southern
Norfolk Southern
system, and the VGN's well-engineered 21st-century tracks continue to offer a favorable gradient to Hampton Roads. As coal mining and related work became major employment activities in the state, there was considerable labor strife as working conditions, safety issues and economic concerns arose. Even in the 21st century, mining safety and ecological concerns is still challenging to the state whose coal continues to power electrical generating plants in many other states. Coal
Coal
is not the only valuable mineral found in West Virginia, as the state was the site of the 1928 discovery of the 34.48 carat (6.896 g) Jones Diamond. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of West Virginia

State sign (Highway 52)

Shaded relief map of the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
and Ridge-and-valley Appalachians

Map of West Virginia
Virginia
counties

Located in the Appalachian Mountain range, West Virginia
Virginia
covers an area of 24,229.76 square miles (62,754.8 km2), with 24,077.73 square miles (62,361.0 km2) of land and 152.03 square miles (393.8 km2) of water, making it the 41st-largest state in the United States.[55] West Virginia
Virginia
borders Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland
Maryland
in the northeast, Virginia
Virginia
in the southeast, Ohio
Ohio
in the northwest, and Kentucky
Kentucky
in the southwest. Its longest border is with Virginia
Virginia
at 381 miles, followed by Ohio
Ohio
at 243 miles, Maryland
Maryland
at 174 miles, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
at 118 miles, and Kentucky
Kentucky
at 79 miles.[56] Geology and terrain[edit] Main article: Geology of West Virginia

The summit of Spruce Knob
Spruce Knob
is often covered in clouds

West Virginia
Virginia
is located entirely within the Appalachian Region, and the state is almost entirely mountainous, giving reason to the nickname The Mountain State and the motto Montani Semper Liberi ("Mountaineers are always free"). The elevations and ruggedness drop near large rivers like the Ohio
Ohio
River or Shenandoah River. About 75% of the state is within the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
and Allegheny Plateau regions. Though the relief is not high, the plateau region is extremely rugged in most areas. The average elevation of West Virginia is approximately 1,500 feet (460 m) above sea level, which is the highest of any U.S. state
U.S. state
east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. On the eastern state line with Virginia, high peaks in the Monongahela National Forest region give rise to an island of colder climate and ecosystems similar to those of northern New England
New England
and eastern Canada. The highest point in the state is atop Spruce
Spruce
Knob, at 4,863 feet (1,482 m),[57] and is covered in a boreal forest of dense spruce trees at altitudes above 4,000 feet (1,200 m). Spruce
Spruce
Knob lies within the Monongahela National Forest
Monongahela National Forest
and is a part of the Spruce
Spruce
Knob- Seneca Rocks
Seneca Rocks
National Recreation Area.[58] A total of six wilderness areas can also be found within the forest. Outside the forest to the south, the New River Gorge
New River Gorge
is a canyon 1,000 feet (300 m) deep, carved by the New River. The National Park Service manages a portion of the gorge and river that has been designated as the New River Gorge
New River Gorge
National River, one of only 15 rivers in the U.S. with this level of protection. Other areas under protection and management include:

Appalachian National Scenic Trail Bluestone National Scenic River Canaan Valley
Canaan Valley
National Wildlife Refuge Chesapeake and Ohio
Ohio
Canal National Historical Park

Gauley River National Recreation Area George Washington
George Washington
National Forest Harpers Ferry
Harpers Ferry
National Historical Park Ohio
Ohio
River Islands National Wildlife Refuge

Most of West Virginia
Virginia
lies within the Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests ecoregion, while the higher elevations along the eastern border and in the panhandle lie within the Appalachian- Blue
Blue
Ridge forests. The native vegetation for most of the state was originally mixed hardwood forest of oak, chestnut, maple, beech, and white pine, with willow and American sycamore
American sycamore
along the state's waterways. Many of the areas are rich in biodiversity and scenic beauty, a fact that is appreciated by native West Virginians, who refer to their home as Almost Heaven (from the song, "Take Me Home, Country Roads" by John Denver). Before the song, it was known as "The Cog State" (Coal, Oil, and Gas) or "The Mountain State". The underlying rock strata are sandstone, shale, bituminous coal beds, and limestone laid down in a near-shore environment from sediments derived from mountains to the east, in a shallow inland sea on the west. Some beds illustrate a coastal swamp environment, some river delta, some shallow water. Sea level rose and fell many times during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian eras, giving a variety of rock strata. The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
are some of the oldest on earth, having formed over 300 million years ago.[59] Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of West Virginia

Further information: Climate
Climate
change in West Virginia

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West Virginia
Virginia
state-wide averages

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3.3     39 22

    2.9     43 24

    3.8     53 32

    3.7     64 40

    4.4     73 50

    4     80 59

    4.2     83 64

    4     82 62

    3.4     76 56

    2.9     65 44

    3.5     54 35

    3.3     44 27

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source: West Virginia
Virginia
University data

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    84     4 −6

    74     6 −4

    97     12 0

    94     18 4

    112     23 10

    102     27 15

    107     28 18

    102     28 17

    86     24 13

    74     18 7

    89     12 2

    84     7 −3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Blackwater Canyon
Blackwater Canyon
during the fall

The climate of West Virginia
Virginia
is generally a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Cfa, except Dfb at the higher elevations) with warm to hot, humid summers and chilly winters, increasing in severity with elevation. Some southern highland areas also have a mountain temperate climate (Köppen Cfb) where winter temperatures are more moderate and summer temperatures are somewhat cooler. However, the weather is subject in all parts of the state to change. The hardiness zones range from zone 5b in the central Appalachian mountains to zone 7a in the warmest parts of the lowest elevations.[60]

Lightning over Cacapon Mountain in West Virginia
Virginia
Skies

In the Eastern Panhandle
Eastern Panhandle
and the Ohio
Ohio
River Valley, temperatures are warm enough to see and grow subtropical plants such as southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), crepe myrtle, Albizia julibrissin, American sweetgum
American sweetgum
and even the occasional needle palm and sabal minor. These plants do not thrive as well in other parts of the state. The eastern prickly pear grows well in many portions of the state. Average January temperatures range from around 26 °F (−4 °C) near the Cheat River
Cheat River
to 41 °F (5 °C) along sections of the border with Kentucky. July averages range from 67 °F (19 °C) along the North Branch Potomac River
Potomac River
to 76 °F (24 °C) in the western part of the state. It is cooler in the mountains than in the lower sections of the state.[61] The highest recorded temperature in the state is 112 °F (44 °C) at Martinsburg on July 10, 1936 and the lowest recorded temperature in the state is −37 °F (−38 °C) at Lewisburg on December 30, 1917.

December 18 and 19, 2003. Significant snowstorm in West Virginia

Annual precipitation ranges from less than 32 inches (81 cm) in the lower eastern section to more than 56 inches (140 cm) in higher parts of the Allegheny Front. Valleys in the east have lower rainfall because the Allegheny mountain ridges to the west create a partial rain shadow. Slightly more than half the rainfall occurs from April to September. Dense fogs are common in many valleys of the Kanawha section, especially the Tygart Valley. West Virginia
Virginia
is also one of the cloudiest states in the nation, with the cities of Elkins and Beckley ranking 9th and 10th in the U.S. respectively for the number of cloudy days per year (over 210). In addition to persistent cloudy skies caused by the damming of moisture by the Alleghenies, West Virginia
Virginia
also experiences some of the most frequent precipitation in the nation, with Snowshoe averaging nearly 200 days a year with either rain or snow. Snow usually lasts only a few days in the lower sections but may persist for weeks in the higher mountain areas. An average of 34 inches (86 cm) of snow falls annually in Charleston, although during the winter of 1995–1996 more than three times that amount fell as several cities in the state established new records for snowfall. Average snowfall in the Allegheny Highlands can range up to 180 inches (460 cm) per year. Severe weather is somewhat less prevalent in West Virginia
Virginia
than in most other eastern states, and it ranks among the least tornado-prone states east of the Rockies. Adjacent states[edit]

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(North) Maryland
Maryland
(Northeast) Kentucky
Kentucky
(Southwest) Virginia
Virginia
(East) Ohio
Ohio
(West)

Demographics[edit]

West Virginia
Virginia
population density map.

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 55,873

1800 78,592

40.7%

1810 105,469

34.2%

1820 136,808

29.7%

1830 176,924

29.3%

1840 224,537

26.9%

1850 302,313

34.6%

1860 376,688

24.6%

1870 442,014

17.3%

1880 618,457

39.9%

1890 762,794

23.3%

1900 958,800

25.7%

1910 1,221,119

27.4%

1920 1,463,701

19.9%

1930 1,729,205

18.1%

1940 1,901,974

10.0%

1950 2,005,552

5.4%

1960 1,860,421

−7.2%

1970 1,744,237

−6.2%

1980 1,949,644

11.8%

1990 1,793,477

−8.0%

2000 1,808,344

0.8%

2010 1,852,994

2.5%

Est. 2017 1,815,857

−2.0%

Source: 1910–2010[62] 2015 Estimate[63]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of West Virginia
Virginia
was 1,831,102 on July 1, 2016, a 1.2% decrease since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[63] The center of population of West Virginia
Virginia
is located in Braxton County, in the town of Gassaway.[64] At the 2010 Census, the racial composition of the state's population was:

93.2% of the population was non-Hispanic White 3.4% non-Hispanic Black or African American 0.2% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 0.7% non-Hispanic Asian American 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) 1.3% Multiracial American
Multiracial American
(non-Hispanic).

In the same year, 1.2% of West Virginia's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race).

West Virginia
Virginia
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1990[65] 2000[66] 2010[67]

White 96.2% 95.0% 93.9%

Black 3.1% 3.2% 3.4%

Asian 0.4% 0.5% 0.7%

Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.2%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – –

Other race 0.1% 0.2% 0.3%

Two or more races – 0.9% 1.5%

As of 2012, West Virginia
Virginia
has an estimated population of 1,855,413, which is an increase of 49, or 0.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 2,414, or 0.13%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural decrease since the last census of 3,296 people (that is 108,292 births minus 111,588 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 14,209 people into the state. West Virginia
Virginia
is the least populous southeastern state. Immigration
Immigration
from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 3,691 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 10,518 people. Only 1.1% of the state's residents were foreign-born, placing West Virginia
Virginia
last among the 50 states in that statistic. It also has the lowest percentage of residents that speak a language other than English in the home (2.7%). The five largest ancestry groups in West Virginia
Virginia
are: German (18.9%), Irish (15.1%) American (12.9%), English (11.8%) and Italian (4.7%)[68][69] In the 2000 Census People who identified their ethnicity as simply American made up 18.7% of the population.[70] The majority of these people are of Scots-Irish ancestry, or of English descent.[citation needed] Large numbers of people of German ancestry are present in the northeastern counties of the state. People of English ancestry are present throughout the entire state. Many West Virginians who self-identify as Irish are actually Scots-Irish Protestants. 5.6% of West Virginia's population were reported as under 5, 22.3% under 18, and 15.3% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population. There were 20,928 births in 2006. Of these, 19,757 (94.40% of the births, 95.19% of the population) were to Non-Hispanic Whites. There were 22 births to American Indians (0.11% of the births and 0.54% of the population), 177 births to Asians (0.85% of the births and 0.68% of the population), 219 births to Hispanics (1.05% of the births and 0.88% of the population) and 753 births to Blacks and others (3.60% of the births and 3.56% of the population).[71] The state's Northern Panhandle, and North-Central region feel an affinity for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Also, those in the Eastern Panhandle feel a connection with the Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
suburbs in Maryland
Maryland
and Virginia, and southern West Virginians often consider themselves Southerners. Finally, the towns and farms along the mid- Ohio
Ohio
River, which forms most of the state's western border, have an appearance and culture somewhat resembling the Midwest.[72]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in West Virginia Source:[73]

Rank Name County Pop.

Charleston

Huntington 1 Charleston Kanawha 50,404

Morgantown

Parkersburg

2 Huntington Cabell 48,807

3 Morgantown Monongalia 31,073

4 Parkersburg Wood 30,981

5 Wheeling Ohio 27,790

6 Weirton Hancock 19,362

7 Fairmont Marion 18,740

8 Martinsburg Berkeley 17,743

9 Beckley Raleigh 17,238

10 Clarksburg Harrison 16,242

Birth data[edit] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[74] 2014[75] 2015[76]

White: 19,823 (95.2%) 19,245 (94.8%) 18,814 (95.0%)

> Non-Hispanic White 19,542 (93.8%) 18,860 (92.9%) 18,442 (93.1%)

Black 754 (3.6%) 813 (4.0%) 738 (3.7%)

Asian 229 (1.1%) 214 (1.0%) 225 (1.1%)

Native 19 (0.1%) 29 (0.1%) 28 (0.1%)

Hispanic (of any race) 219 (1.1%) 350 (1.7%) 331 (1.7%)

Total West Virginia 20,825 (100%) 20,301 (100%) 19,805 (100%)

Religion[edit]

Religion in West Virginia[77]

religion

percent

Protestant

70%

Unaffiliated

18%

Catholic

6%

Mormon

2%

Jewish

1%

Muslim

1%

Other faith

1%

Unanswered

1%

Several surveys have been made in recent years, in 2008 by the American Religion Identity Survey,[78] in 2010 by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.[79] The Pew survey results admit to a 6.5% margin of error plus or minus, while the ARIS survey states that "estimates are subject to larger sampling errors in states with small populations." A characteristic of religion in Appalachian communities is the abundance of independent, non-affiliated churches, which "remain unnoted and uncounted in any census of church life in the United States." This sometimes leads to the belief that these communities are "unchurched".[80] The largest denomination as of 2010 was the United Methodist Church with 136,000 members in 1,200 congregations. The second largest Protestant
Protestant
church was the American Baptist Churches USA
American Baptist Churches USA
with 88,000 members and 381 congregations. The Southern Baptist church had 44,000 members and 232 congregations. The Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
had 22,000 members and 287 congregations. The Presbyterian Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church (USA)
had 200 congregations and 20,000 members.[81] A survey conducted in 2015 by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
found that West Virginia
Virginia
was the 7th most "highly religious" state in the United States.[82] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of West Virginia See also: West Virginia
Virginia
locations by per capita income Overview[edit] The economy of West Virginia
Virginia
nominally would be the 62nd largest economy globally behind Iraq
Iraq
and ahead of Croatia
Croatia
according to 2009 World Bank
World Bank
projections,[83] and the 64th largest behind Iraq
Iraq
and ahead of Libya
Libya
according to 2009 International Monetary Fund projections.[84] The state has a projected nominal GSP of $63.34 billion in 2009 according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
report of November 2010, and a real GSP of $55.04 billion. The real GDP growth of the state in 2009 of .7% was the 7th best in the country.[85] West Virginia
Virginia
was only one of ten states in 2009 that grew economically.[86] While per capita income fell 2.6% nationally in 2009, West Virginia's grew at 1.8%.[87] Through the first half of 2010, exports from West Virginia
Virginia
topped $3 billion, growing 39.5% over the same period from the previous year and ahead of the national average by 15.7%.[87] Morgantown was ranked by Forbes
Forbes
as the #10 best small city in the nation to conduct business in 2010.[88] The city is also home to West Virginia
Virginia
University, the 95th best public university according to U.S. News & World Report in 2011.[89] The proportion of West Virginia's adult population with a bachelor's degree is the lowest in the U.S. at 17.3%.[90] The net corporate income tax rate is 6.5% while business costs are 13% below the national average.[91][92] The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
reported that in 2014 West Virginia's economy grew twice as fast as the next fastest growing state East of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, ranking third alongside Wyoming and just behind North Dakota
North Dakota
and Texas
Texas
among the fastest growing states in the United States.[93] Tourism[edit] Tourism contributed $4.27 billion to the state's economy and employed 44,400 people in 2010, making it one of the state's largest industries.[94] Many tourists, especially in the eastern mountains, are drawn to the region's notable opportunities for outdoor recreation. Canaan Valley
Canaan Valley
is popular for winter sports, Seneca Rocks is one of the premier rock climbing destinations in the eastern U.S., the New River Gorge/Fayetteville area draws rock climbers as well as whitewater rafting enthusiasts, and the Monongahela National Forest
Monongahela National Forest
is popular with hikers, backpackers, hunters, and anglers.

Seneca Rocks, Pendleton County

In addition to such outdoor recreation opportunities, the state offers a number of historic and cultural attractions. Harpers Ferry
Harpers Ferry
National Historical Park is a historic town situated at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers. Harpers Ferry
Harpers Ferry
was the site of John Brown's 1859 slave revolt and raid on the US Armory and Arsenal. Located at the approximate midpoint of the Appalachian Trail, Harpers Ferry is the base of the Appalachian Trail
Appalachian Trail
Conservancy. The Greenbrier
The Greenbrier
hotel and resort, originally built in 1778, has long been considered a premier hotel, frequented by numerous world leaders and U.S. presidents over the years. West Virginia
Virginia
is the site of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which features the Green Bank Telescope. The main building of Weston State Hospital is the largest hand-cut sandstone building in the western hemisphere, second worldwide only to the Kremlin in Moscow. Tours
Tours
of the building, which is a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
and part of the National Civil War Trail, are offered seasonally and by appointment year round. West Virginia
Virginia
has numerous popular festivals throughout the year.

WV State Sesquicentennial

Resources[edit]

Bituminous coal
Bituminous coal
seam in southwestern West Virginia

One of the major resources in West Virginia's economy is coal. According to the Energy Information Administration, West Virginia
Virginia
is a top coal-producer in the United States, second only to Wyoming. West Virginia
Virginia
is located in the heart of the Marcellus Shale
Shale
Natural Gas Bed, which stretches from Tennessee
Tennessee
north to New York in the middle of Appalachia. Nearly all of the electricity generated in West Virginia
Virginia
is from coal-fired power plants. West Virginia
Virginia
produces a surplus of electricity and leads the Nation in net interstate electricity exports.[95] Farming is also practiced in West Virginia, but on a limited basis because of the mountainous terrain over much of the state. Green energy[edit] West Virginia
Virginia
has the potential to generate 4,952 GWh/year from 1,883 MW of wind power, using 80 meter high wind turbines, or 8,627 GWh/year from 2,772 MW of 100 meter wind turbines, and 60,000 GWh from 40,000 MW of photovoltaics, including 3,810 MW of rooftop photovoltaics.[96]

West Virginia
Virginia
Wind Generation (GWh, Million kWh)

Year Capacity (MW) Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

2009 330 742 86 86 69 71 31 49 49 32 46 71 68 86

2010 431 939 92 79 85 86 66 69 49 33 66 114 89 112

2011 564 1099 102 113 112 114 49 62 45 68 60 122 124 132

2012 583 1286 201 147 136 130 59 90 85 41 65 98 100 133

2013 583 1387 175 154 174 140 134 78 55 58 52 58 159 152[97]

2014 583 1451 166 146 167 143 100 62 76 64 67 154 157 149

2015 583 1376 158 137 181 137 75 103 65 44 71 122 147 136

2016 686 1432 166 164 134 120 74 92 69 57 67 130 135 222

2017

115 118 168 173 147 141 115 79 86 148 151

Source:[98][99][100][101] Taxes[edit] West Virginia
Virginia
personal income tax is based on federal adjusted gross income (not taxable income), as modified by specific items in West Virginia
Virginia
law. Citizens are taxed within five income brackets, which range from 3.0 percent to 6.5 percent. The state's consumer sales tax is levied at 6 percent. Effective January 1, 2004, calculation of WV consumer sales tax has been converted to a calculated figure from the bracket system, and remains at 6 percent for most goods (non-prepared foods are not taxed[102]). West Virginia
Virginia
counties administer and collect property taxes, although property tax rates reflect levies for state government, county governments, county boards of education and municipalities. Counties may also impose a hotel occupancy tax on lodging places not located within the city limits of any municipality that levies such a tax. Municipalities may levy license and gross receipts taxes on businesses located within the city limits and a hotel occupancy tax on lodging places in the city. Although the Department of Tax and Revenue plays a major role in the administration of this tax, less than one-half of 1 percent of the property tax collected goes to state government. The primary beneficiaries of the property tax are county boards of education. Property taxes are paid to the sheriff of each of the state's 55 counties. Each county and municipality can impose its own rates of property taxation within the limits set by the West Virginia Constitution. The West Virginia
Virginia
legislature sets the rate of tax of county boards of education. This rate is used by all county boards of education statewide. However, the total tax rate for county boards of education may differ from county to county because of excess levies. The Department of Tax and Revenue supervises and otherwise assists counties and municipalities in their work of assessment and tax rate determination. The total tax rate is a combination of the tax levies from four state taxing authorities: state, county, schools and municipal. This total tax rate varies for each of the four classes of property, which consists of personal, real and intangible properties. Property is assessed according to its use, location and value as of July 1. All property is reappraised every three years; annual adjustments are made to assessments for property with a change of value. West Virginia
Virginia
does not impose an inheritance tax. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, West Virginia's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died on or after January 1, 2005.[103] Largest private employers[edit] The largest private employers in West Virginia, as of March 2011, were:[104]

Rank Company

1 Walmart

2 West Virginia
Virginia
United Health System

3 Charleston Area Medical Center

4 Kroger

5 Consol Energy

6 Mylan
Mylan
Pharmaceuticals

7 Lowe's

8 St. Mary's Medical Center

9 American Electric Power

10 The Mentor Network

11 ResCare

12 Cabell Huntington Hospital

13 Wheeling Hospital

14 Pilgrim's Pride

15 Hollywood Casino at Charles Town Races

16 DuPont

17 Mon Power

18 Rite Aid

19 West Virginia's Choice, Inc

20 University Health Associates

21 Frontier West Virginia

22 Bob Evans Farms

23 Camden-Clark Memorial Hospital

24 The Greenbrier

25 Monongalia General Hospital

26 ATK

27 MTR Gaming Group

28 Kmart

29 TeleTech

30 Dollar General

31 Thomas Health System

32 BB&T

33 Little General

34 IBEX Global

35 Go-Mart

36 Raleigh General Hospital

37 Elk Run Coal
Coal
Company

38 GMRI, Inc.

39 Spartan Mining Company

40 Hobet Mining

41 Employee Resource Group

42 Dominion Transmission

43 Cracker Barrel Old Country Store

44 J. C. Penney

45 Heartland Employment Services

46 United Parcel Service

47 Toyota Motor Manufacturing West Virginia

48 Gino's/Tudor's Biscuit World

49 Weirton Medical Center

50 Alcan Rolled Products

Quality of life[edit]

Bluefield in 2014

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Economy[edit] West Virginia
Virginia
Governor Tomblin's proposed 2014–15 budget submitted in January 2014 had an estimated budget gap of $146–$265 million, and halfway through the 2013–14 fiscal year, tax revenues were $82 million short.[105] The West Virginia
Virginia
Legislature
Legislature
in March 2014 passed its budget bill, taking $147 million from the Rainy Day Fund to balance the 2015 budget.[106] Governor Tomblin's Deputy Chief of Staff Jason Pizatella, after the state legislature passed the budget, said that West Virginia
Virginia
is expecting another dismal budget in 2016 and could need $150–170 million to balance the next year's budget.[107] West Virginia
Virginia
coal exports declined 40% in 2013 – a loss of $2.9 billion and overall total exports declined 26%.[108] West Virginia ranked last in the Gallup Economic Index for the fourth year running. West Virginia's score was −44, or a full 17 points lower than the average of −27 for the other states in the bottom ten.[109] West Virginia
Virginia
ranked 48th in the CNBC "Top States for Business 2013" based on measures of competitiveness such as economy, workforce and cost of living – ranking among the bottom 5 states for the last six years running.[110] West Virginia
Virginia
ranked 49th in the 2014 State New Economy Index, and has ranked in the bottom three states since 1999. West Virginia
Virginia
ranked last or next-to-last in critical indicators such as Workforce Education, Entrepreneurial Activity, High-Tech Jobs, and Scientists and Engineers.[111] On January 9, 2014 near Charleston, the state capital, a chemical spill occurred that contaminated the water supply of 300,000 people in nine West Virginia
Virginia
counties. According to Bloomberg News, lost wages, revenue, and other economic harm from the chemical spill could top $500 million.[112] and West Virginia's Marshall University
Marshall University
Center for Business and Economic Research estimated that about $61 million was lost by businesses in the first four days alone after the spill.[113] Employment[edit] In 2012, West Virginia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew by 3.3%.[114] The state issued a report highlighting the state's GDP as indicating a fast-growing economy, but did not address employment indicators.[115] In 2009–2013, the U.S. real GDP increased 9.6% and total employment increased 3.9%. In West Virginia
Virginia
during the same time period, its real GDP increased about 11%, while total employment decreased by 1,000 jobs from 746,000 to 745,000. In 2013, West Virginia
Virginia
ranked last in the nation with an employment-to-population ratio of only 50%, compared to the national average of 59%.[116] The state lost 5,600 jobs in its labor force in four critical economic sectors: construction (1,900), manufacturing (1,100), retail (1,800), and education (800), while gaining just 400 in mining and logging.[117] The state's Civilian Labor Force dropped by 15,100.[118] Wages[edit] Personal income growth in West Virginia
Virginia
during 2013 was only 1.5% – the lowest in the nation – and about half the national average of 2.6%.[119] Overall income growth in West Virginia
Virginia
in the last 30 years has been only 13% (about one-third of the national average of 37%). Wages of the impoverished bottom 1% income earners decreased by 3%, compared to the national average, which increased 19%.[120] Population[edit] United Van Lines 37th Annual Migration Study showed in 2013 that 60% more people moved out of the Mountain State than moved in.[121] West Virginia's population is expected to decline by more than 19,000 residents by 2030, and West Virginia
Virginia
could lose one of its three seats in the United States
United States
House of Representatives.[122] West Virginia
Virginia
is the only state where death rates exceeds birth rates. During 2010–2013, about 21,000 babies per year were born in West Virginia, but over 3 years West Virginia
Virginia
had 3,000 more deaths than births.[123] Family[edit] Gallup-Healthways annual "State of American Well-Being" rankings reports that 1,261 concerned West Virginians rated themselves as "suffering" in categories such as Quality of Life, Physical Health, and Access to Basic Needs. Overall, West Virginia
Virginia
citizens rated themselves as being more miserable than people in all other states – for 5 years running.[124] In addition, the Gallup Well-Being Index for 2013 ranked Charleston, the state capital, and Huntington last and next-to-last out of 189 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas.[125] The Annie E. Casey Foundation's National Index of Children's Progress ranked West Virginia
Virginia
43rd in the nation for all kids, and last for white kids.[126] The Annie E. Casey Foundation's 2013 KIDS COUNT Data Book also ranked West Virginia's education system 47th in the nation for the second straight year.[127] Charleston, West Virginia
Charleston, West Virginia
has the worst divorce rate among 100 cities in the nation. Stephen Smith, the executive director of the West Virginia
Virginia
Healthy Kids and Families Coalition, said that poor employment prospects are to blame: "The pressure to make a good living puts strain on a marriage, and right now it is infinitely harder to make a living here than it was 40 years ago."[128] Health[edit] United Health Foundation's "America's Health Rankings" for 2013 found that Americans are making considerable progress in key health measures. West Virginia, however, ranked either last or second-to-last in 20 categories, including cancer, child immunization, diabetes, disabilities, drug deaths, teeth loss, low birth weight, missed work days due to health, prescription drug overdose, preventable hospitalizations, and senior clinical care.[129] Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Population Health Institute annual "Health Rankings" for 2012 showed West Virginia
Virginia
spends $9,671 per capita on health care annually. El Salvador spends just $467, yet both have the same life expectancy.[130] In 2012, according to the Census Bureau, West Virginia
Virginia
was the only state where death rates exceeds birth rates. During 2010–2013, about 21,000 babies per year were born in West Virginia, but there were 24,000 deaths.[123] In demographics, this is called a "net mortality society."[131] The National Center for Health Statistics says that national birth rates for teenagers are at historic lows – during 2007–2010, teen birth rates fell 17% nationally;. West Virginia, however, ranked last with a 3% increase in birth rates for teenagers.[132] A study by West Virginia's Marshall University
Marshall University
showed that 19% of babies born in the state have evidence of drug or alcohol exposure.[133] This is several times the national rate, where studies show that about 5.9% of pregnant women in the U.S. use illicit drugs, and about 8.5% consume any alcohol.[134] An Institute for Health Policy Research study determined that mortality rates in Appalachia
Appalachia
are correlated with coal production. In twenty West Virginia
Virginia
coal counties mining more than 1 million tons of coal per year and having a total population of 850,000, there are about 10,100 deaths per year, with 1,400 of those statistically attributed to deaths from heart, respiratory and kidney disease from living in an Appalachian coal county.[135] In 2015, McDowell County had the highest rate of drug-induced deaths of any county in the United States, with a rate of 141 deaths per 100,000 people. Four of the five US counties with the highest rates of drug-induced deaths are located in West Virginia
Virginia
(McDowell, Wyoming, Cabell and Raleigh Counties).[136] Governance[edit] Main articles: Law and government of West Virginia
Virginia
and West Virginia Constitution

The West Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol

150th Statehood

West Virginia's capital and seat of government is the city of Charleston, located in the southwest area of the state. Legislative branch[edit] Further information: West Virginia
Virginia
Legislature The West Virginia
Virginia
Legislature
Legislature
is bicameral. It consists of the House of Delegates and the Senate, both housed in the West Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol. It is a citizen's legislature, meaning that legislative office is not a full-time occupation, but rather a part-time position. Consequently, the legislators often hold a full-time job in their community of residence. Typically, the legislature is in session for 60 days between January and early April. The final day of the regular session ends in a bewildering fury of last-minute legislation to meet a constitutionally imposed midnight deadline. During the remainder of the year, monthly interim sessions are held in preparation for the regular session. Legislators also gather periodically for 'special' sessions when called by the governor. The title of Lieutenant Governor is assigned by statute to the Senate President. Executive branch[edit] Further information: List of Governors of West Virginia The governor, elected every four years on the same day as the U.S. Presidential election, is sworn in during the following January. Governors of West Virginia
Virginia
can serve two consecutive terms but must sit out a term before serving a third term in office. The title of Lieutenant Governor is assigned by statute to the Senate President. Judicial branch[edit] Further information: Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia West Virginia
Virginia
is one of nineteen states that do not have a death penalty, and it is the only state in the southeastern United States
United States
to have abolished it. For the purpose of courts of general jurisdiction, the state is divided into 31 judicial circuits. Each circuit is made up of one or more counties. Circuit judges are elected in partisan elections to serve eight-year terms. West Virginia's highest court is the Supreme Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia
Virginia
is the busiest appellate court of its type in the United States. West Virginia
Virginia
is one of 11 states with a single appellate court. The state constitution allows for the creation of an intermediate court of appeals, but the Legislature
Legislature
has never created one. The Supreme Court is made up of five justices, elected in non-partisan elections to 12-year terms. West Virginia
Virginia
is an alcoholic beverage control state. However, unlike most such states, it does not operate retail outlets, having exited that business in 1990. It retains a monopoly on wholesaling of distilled spirits only. Politics[edit]

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Main articles: Elections in West Virginia
Virginia
and Political party strength in West Virginia

Presidential election results[137]

Year Republicans Democrats

2016 67.86% 483,436 26.16% 186,397

2012 62.14% 417,655 35.45% 238,269

2008 55.58% 397,466 42.49% 303,857

2004 56.06% 423,778 43.20% 326,541

2000 51.92% 336,475 45.59% 295,497

1996 36.76% 233,946 51.51% 327,812

1992 35.39% 241,974 48.41% 331,001

1988 47.46% 310,065 52.20% 341,016

1984 55.11% 405,483 44.60% 328,125

1980 45.30% 334,206 49.81% 367,462

1976 41.93% 314,760 58.07% 435,914

1972 63.61% 484,964 36.39% 277,435

1968 40.78% 307,555 49.60% 374,091

1964 32.06% 253,953 67.94% 538,087

1960 47.27% 395,995 52.73% 441,786

At the state level, West Virginia's politics were largely dominated by the Democratic Party from the Great Depression
Great Depression
through the 2000s. This was a legacy of West Virginia's very strong tradition of union membership.[138] Since 2000, state elections have become more competitive at both the state and federal levels. After the 2014 midterm elections, Democrats controlled the governorship, the majority of statewide offices, and one U.S. Senate seat, while Republicans held one U.S. Senate seat, all three of the state's U.S. House
U.S. House
seats, and a majority in both houses of the West Virginia
Virginia
Legislature. In the 2016 elections, the Republicans held on to their seats and made gains in the State Senate and gained three statewide offices.[139][140] Since 2000, West Virginians have supported the Republican candidate in every presidential election. The state is regarded as a "deep red" state at the federal level.[138][141] In the 2012 presidential election Republican Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
won the state defeating Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
with 62% of the vote to 35% for Obama. In the 2016 presidential election, Republican Donald Trump
Donald Trump
won the state with 67.86% of the popular vote, with West Virginia
Virginia
being the second-highest percentage voting for Trump of any state.[137] Evangelical Christians comprised 52 percent of the state's voters in 2008.[142] A poll in 2005 showed that 53 percent of West Virginia voters are pro-life, the seventh highest in the country.[143] A September 2011 Public Policy Polling
Public Policy Polling
survey found that 19% of West Virginia
Virginia
voters thought that same-sex marriage should be legal, while 71% thought it should be illegal and 10% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found that 43% of West Virginia
Virginia
voters supported the legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 17% supporting same-sex marriage, 26% supporting civil unions but not marriage, 54% favoring no legal recognition and 3% not sure.[144] In 2008, 58 percent favored troop withdrawal from Iraq
Iraq
while just 32 percent wanted troops to remain.[145] On fiscal policy in 2008, 52 percent said raising taxes on the wealthier individuals would benefit the economy, while 45 percent disagreed.[146] Transportation[edit]

A toll plaza on the West Virginia
Virginia
Turnpike.

View of the iconic New River Gorge
New River Gorge
Bridge from the overlook at the north end of the New River Gorge
New River Gorge
(facing southwards), near Fayetteville.

The Veterans Memorial Bridge carries US 22 between Weirton and Steubenville, Ohio. It is similar in design to the new bridge connecting Proctorville, Ohio
Ohio
( Ohio
Ohio
Rt 7) with Huntington, West Virginia
Virginia
via US 60.

Main article: Transportation in West Virginia Highways form the backbone of transportation systems in West Virginia, with over 37,300 miles (60,000 km) of public roads in the state.[147] Airports, railroads, and rivers complete the commercial transportation modes for West Virginia. Commercial air travel is facilitated by airports in Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Beckley, Lewisburg, Clarksburg, and Parkersburg. All but Charleston and Huntington are subsidized by the US Department of Transportation's Essential Air Service
Essential Air Service
program. The cities of Charleston, Huntington, Beckley, Wheeling, Morgantown, Clarksburg, Parkersburg and Fairmont have bus-based public transit systems, and the Huntington and Charleston systems jointly operate a twice per weekday interconnecting service. West Virginia
Virginia
University in Morgantown boasts the PRT (personal rapid transit) system, the state's only single rail public transit system. Developed by Boeing, the WVU School of Engineering and the Department of Transportation, it was a model for low-capacity light transport designed for smaller cities. Recreational transportation opportunities abound in West Virginia, including hiking trails,[148] rail trails,[149] ATV off-road trails,[150] white water rafting rivers,[151] and two tourist railroads, the Cass Scenic Railroad[152] and the Potomac Eagle Scenic Railroad.[153] West Virginia
Virginia
is crossed by six interstate highways. I-64 enters the state near White Sulphur Springs in the mountainous east, and exits for Kentucky
Kentucky
in the west, near Huntington. I-77 enters from Virginia in the south, near Bluefield. It runs north past Parkersburg before it crosses into Ohio. I-64 and I-77 between Charleston and Beckley are merged as toll road known as the West Virginia
Virginia
Turnpike, which continues as I-77 alone from Beckley to Princeton. It was constructed beginning in 1952 as a two lane road, but rebuilt beginning in 1974 to interstate standards. Today almost nothing of the original construction remains. I-68's western terminus is in Morgantown. From there it runs east into Maryland. At the I-68 terminus in Morgantown, it meets I-79, which enters from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and runs through the state to its southern terminus in Charleston. I-70 briefly runs through West Virginia, crossing the northern panhandle through Wheeling, while I-470 is a bypass of Wheeling (making Wheeling among the smallest cities with an interstate bypass). I-81 also briefly runs in West Virginia
Virginia
through the Eastern Panhandle
Eastern Panhandle
where it goes through Martinsburg. The interstates are supplemented by roads constructed under the Appalachian Corridor system. Four Corridors are complete. Corridor D, carrying US 50, runs from the Ohio
Ohio
River, and I-77, at Parkersburg to I-79 at Clarksburg. Corridor G, carrying US 119, runs from Charleston to the Kentucky
Kentucky
border at Williamson. Corridor L, carrying US 19, runs from the Turnpike at Beckley to I-79 near Sutton (and provides a short cut of about 40 miles and bypasses Charleston's urban traffic for traveler heading to and from Florida). Corridor Q, carrying US 460, runs through Mercer County, entering the state from Giles County, Virginia
Virginia
and then reentering Virginia
Virginia
at Tazewell County. Work continues on the long delayed Corridor H, which will carry US 48 from Weston to the Virginia
Virginia
line near Wardensville. As of 2013, a section from Weston to Elkins, and another section from Wardensville to near Scher are complete. Other projects under development are a four-lane upgrade of US 35 from Scott Depot to the Ohio
Ohio
River at Point Pleasant, which is about two-thirds complete; a four lane upgrade of WV 10 from Logan to Man and then of WV 80 from Man to Gilbert, which is about one-third complete; and four lane upgrades to US 52 from Bluefield to Williamson, known as the "King Coal
Coal
Highway" and from Williamson to Huntington, known as the "Tolsia Highway" which are many years from completion. A project known as the "Coalfields Expressway" is also ongoing, and will carry US 121 from Beckley west across Raleigh, Wyoming, and McDowell counties, entering Virginia
Virginia
near Bishop. Rail lines in the state used to be more prevalent, but many lines have been discontinued because of increased automobile traffic. Many old tracks have been converted to rail trails for recreational use, although the coal producing areas still have railroads running at near capacity. Amtrak's Cardinal roughly parallels I-64's path through the state. MARC trains serve commuters in the eastern panhandle. In 2006 Norfolk Southern
Norfolk Southern
along with the West Virginia
Virginia
and U.S. Government approved a plan to modify many of the rail tunnels in West Virginia, especially in the southern half of the state, to allow for double stacked cars (see inter-modal freight). This is expected to also help bring economic growth to the southern half of the state. An Intermodal Freight Facility is under construction near Prichard, south of Huntington. Because of the mountainous nature of the entire state, West Virginia has several notable tunnels and bridges. The most famous of these is the New River Gorge
New River Gorge
Bridge, which was at a time the longest steel single-arch bridge in the world with a 3,031-foot (924 m) span. The bridge is also pictured on the West Virginia
Virginia
state quarter. The Fort Steuben Bridge (Weirton-Steubenville Bridge) was at its time of construction one of only three cable-stayed steel girder trusses in the United States. "The Veterans Memorial Bridge was designed to handle traffic from the Fort Steuben Bridge as well as its own traffic load", to quote the Weirton Daily Times newspaper.[154] The 80-year-old Fort Steuben Bridge (Weirton-Steubenville Bridge) was permanently closed on January 8, 2009. The Wheeling Suspension Bridge was the first bridge built across the Ohio
Ohio
River in 1849 and for a time was the longest suspension bridge in the world. It is still the oldest vehicular suspension bridge in the United States
United States
still in use. Important cities and towns[edit] See also: List of cities in West Virginia, List of towns in West Virginia, List of villages in West Virginia, and List of census-designated places in West Virginia

Charleston is West Virginia's most populous city

Huntington

Parkersburg

Clarksburg

State capitals[edit] Originally, the state capital was in Wheeling (1863 to 1870). It was then moved to Charleston, a more central city (1870 to 1875). However it was returned to Wheeling in 1875, until the capitol burned down in 1885. It was moved back to Charleston in 1885, and it has been there since.[155] Large cities[edit]

Charleston, 51,371 Huntington, 49,138 Parkersburg, 31,492 Morgantown, 29,660 Wheeling, 28,486 Weirton, 19,746 Fairmont, 18,704 Beckley, 17,614

Martinsburg, 17,227 Clarksburg, 16,578 South Charleston, 13,450 Teays Valley, 13,175 St. Albans, 11,044 Vienna, 10,749 Bluefield, 10,447

Towns and small cities[edit]

Berkeley Springs Bridgeport Buckhannon Charles Town Elkins Elizabeth Grafton

Hamlin Hinton Keyser Kingwood Lewisburg Logan

Madison Marlinton Moorefield Moundsville Mullens New Martinsville

Oak Hill Petersburg Philippi Point Pleasant Princeton Ripley Romney

Summersville Sutton Union Wayne Welch Weston Williamson

Metropolitan statistical areas[edit]

Beckley, West Virginia
Virginia
MSA [156] Charleston, WV MSA Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH MSA Morgantown, WV MSA Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna, WV-OH MSA Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH MSA

Wheeling, WV-OH MSA Cumberland, MD-WV MSA Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV MSA Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA Winchester, VA-WV MSA

Micropolitan statistical areas[edit]

Bluefield, WV-VA MSA Micropolitan Statistical Area Clarksburg, West Virginia
Virginia
MSA

Elkins, West Virginia
Virginia
MSA [156] Fairmont, West Virginia
Virginia
MSA Logan, West Virginia
Virginia
MSA [156] Point Pleasant, WV-OH MSA

Morgantown

Wheeling

Beckley

Fairmont

Martinsburg

Education[edit] Main article: Education in West Virginia Colleges and universities[edit] Further information: List of colleges and universities in West Virginia

Alderson Broaddus University American Public University System Appalachian Bible College Bethany College Bluefield State College Blue
Blue
Ridge Community and Technical College BridgeValley Community and Technical College Concord University Davis and Elkins College Eastern West Virginia
Virginia
Community and Technical College Fairmont State University Future Generations Graduate School Glenville State College Marshall University Mountwest Community and Technical College New River Community and Technical College

Ohio
Ohio
Valley University Pierpont Community and Technical College Salem International University Shepherd University Southern West Virginia
Virginia
Community and Technical College University of Charleston West Liberty University West Virginia
Virginia
Northern Community College West Virginia
Virginia
School of Osteopathic Medicine West Virginia
Virginia
State University West Virginia
Virginia
University

Potomac State College of West Virginia
Virginia
University West Virginia
Virginia
University at Parkersburg West Virginia
Virginia
University Institute of Technology

West Virginia
Virginia
Wesleyan College Wheeling Jesuit University

Culture[edit] Sports[edit] West Virginia
Virginia
is home to college sports teams from two schools – West Virginia
Virginia
and Marshall – that play in NCAA Division I. West Virginia
Virginia
is also home to several professional minor league baseball, football, soccer, and other sports teams.

Club Sport League

West Virginia
Virginia
Mountaineers Football / Basketball Big 12 Conference

Marshall Thundering Herd Football / Basketball Conference USA

West Virginia
Virginia
Power Baseball South Atlantic League

Bluefield Blue
Blue
Jays Baseball Appalachian League

Princeton Rays Baseball Appalachian League

West Virginia
Virginia
Miners Baseball Prospect League

West Virginia
Virginia
Black Bears Baseball New York–Penn League

Wheeling Nailers Ice hockey ECHL

West Virginia
Virginia
Wild Basketball American Basketball Association (2000–present)

West Virginia
Virginia
Lightning[157] Football Elite Mid-Continental Football League[158]

West Virginia
Virginia
Chaos Soccer Premier Development League

West Virginia
Virginia
Bruisers Football Women's Football Alliance

Music[edit] Main article: Music of West Virginia Appalachian music[edit] West Virginia's folk heritage is a part of the Appalachian folk music tradition, and includes styles of fiddling, ballad singing, and other styles that draw on Scots-Irish music. Camp Washington-Carver, a Mountain Cultural Arts Center located at Clifftop in Fayette County, hosts an annual Appalachian String Band Festival.[159] The Capitol Complex in Charleston hosts The Vandalia Gathering, where traditional Appalachian musicians compete in contests and play in impromptu jam sessions and evening concerts over the course of the weekend.[160] The Augusta Heritage Center sponsored by Davis & Elkins College in Elkins in Randolph County produces the annual Augusta Heritage Festival, which includes intensive week-long workshops in the summer that help preserve Appalachian heritage and traditions.[161] Classical music[edit] The West Virginia
Virginia
Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1939, as the Charleston Civic Orchestra, before becoming the Charleston Symphony Orchestra in 1943. The first conductor was William R. Wiant, followed by the conductor Antonio Modarelli, who was written about in the November 7, 1949 Time Magazine for his composition of the River Saga, a six-section program piece about the Kanawha River
Kanawha River
according to the Charleston Gazette's November 6, 1999 photo essay, "Snapshots of the 20th Century".[162] Before coming to Charleston, Modarelli had conducted the Wheeling Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Orchestra, according to the orchestra's website.[163] The Pulitzer Prize-winning 20th-century composer George Crumb was born in Charleston and earned his bachelor's degree there before moving outside the state. There had also been a series of operatic style concerts performed in Wheeling during mid-century as well. Musical innovation[edit] The West Virginia
Virginia
Cultural Center in Charleston[164] is home to the West Virginia
Virginia
Division of Culture and History,[165] which helps underwrite and coordinate a large number of musical activities. The center is also home to Mountain Stage, an internationally broadcast live-performance music radio program established in 1983 that is carried by many affiliates of National Public Radio.[166] The program also travels to other venues in the state such as the West Virginia University Creative Arts Center in Morgantown.[167] The center hosts concerts sponsored by the Friends of Old Time Music and Dance, which brings an assortment of acoustic roots music to West Virginians.[168] The center also hosts the West Virginia
Virginia
Dance Festival, which features classical and modern dance.[169] Huntington's historic Keith-Albee Theatre, built by brothers A.B. and S.J. Hyman, was originally opened to the public on May 7, 1928, and hosts a variety of performing arts and music attractions. The theatre was eventually gifted to Marshall University
Marshall University
and is currently going through renovation to restore it to its original splendor. Every summer Elkins hosts the Augusta Heritage Festival, which brings folk musicians from around the world.[170] The town of Glenville has long been home to the annual West Virginia
Virginia
State Folk Festival.[171] The Mountaineer Opera House in Milton hosts a variety of musical acts. John Denver's hit song "Take Me Home, Country Roads" describes the experience of driving through West Virginia. The song mentions the Shenandoah River
Shenandoah River
and the Blue
Blue
Ridge Mountains, both features traversing the easternmost extremity of the state's "eastern panhandle", in Jefferson County. On March 8, 2014, West Virginia Governor Earl Ray Tomblin signed House Concurrent Resolution 40 naming "Take Me Home, Country Roads" the fourth official state song of West Virginia. Symphony Sunday is an annual event hosted by the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra held in June. It is a day full day of music by community groups, food, and family fun, culminating in a free performance by the West Virginia
Virginia
Symphony Orchestra with a fireworks display following. The event began in 1982 and is held on the front lawn of the University of Charleston. The Daily Mail Kanawha County Majorette and Band Festival is West Virginia's longest running music festival. It is for the eight public high schools in Kanawha County. The festival began in 1947. It is held at the University of Charleston
University of Charleston
Stadium at Laidley Field in downtown Charleston. Literature[edit] Main article: West Virginia
Virginia
literature In popular culture[edit] See also: List of television shows and movies in West Virginia See also[edit]

West Virginia
Virginia
portal

Outline of West Virginia
Virginia
– organized list of topics about West Virginia Index of West Virginia-related articles

References[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ " Spruce Knob
Spruce Knob
Cairn 1956". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ a b Southeastern Division of the Association of American Geographers Archived January 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Univ. of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 1990. ^ U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
Archived November 27, 2001, at the Library of Congress ^ Thomas R. Ford and Rupert Bayless Vance, The Southern Appalachian Region, A Survey, Univ. of Kentucky
Kentucky
Press, 1962 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.  Geological Society of America ^ Foner, Eric, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, Harper, 2002, pg. 39 ^ "Appalachian Region: Counties in Appalachia". Appalachian Regional Commission. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2007.  ^ Charles H. Ambler, "A History of West Virginia" pg. 104 ^ Charles H. Ambler. A History of West Virginia, pp. 132–138 ^ Thier, David (April 18, 2010). "W.Va. Stalagmite
Stalagmite
Points to Surprising Carbon Footprint". Science. aolnews.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010.  ^ Ellis, Laura Elizabeth "Investigating the Orchard Site: A Protohistoric Fort AncientSite in West Virginia" 2015 ^ (Extrapolation from the 16th-century Spanish, 'Cali' ˈkali a rich agricultural area – geographical sunny climate. also 1536, Cauca River, linking Cali, important for higher population agriculture and cattle raising & Colombia's coffee is produced in the adjacent uplands. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 'Cali', city, metropolis, urban center. Pearson Education 2006. "Calica", Yucatán place name called rock pit, a port an hour south of Cancún. Sp. root: "Cal", limestone. Also today, 'Calicuas', supporting cylinder or enclosing ring, or moveable prop as in holding a strut) ^ louis, franquelin, jean baptiste. "Franquelin's map of Louisiana.". LOC.gov. Retrieved August 17, 2017. ^ "Discoveries of John Lederer," reprinted by O.H. Harpel, Cincinnnati (1879) ^ Ellis, Laura Elizabeth "Investigating the Orchard Site: A Protohistoric Fort AncientSite in West Virginia" 2015 ^ Jennings, Francis "Glory, Death & Transfiguration: The Susquehannock
Susquehannock
Indians in the 17th Century" 1968 ^ "Lambreville to Bruyas Nov. 4,1696" N.Y. Hist. Col. Vol. III, p. 484 ^ Lawson's "History of Carolina" reprinted by Stroller & Marcom. Raleigh, 1860, p. 384 ^ cherokeelessons.com/pdf/ Cherokee
Cherokee
Lessons 978-0-557-68640-7.pdf ^ https://peopleofonefire.com/the-shenandoah-valley-of-virginia-its-secret-native-american-history.html ^ Mooney 1894:7–8. ^ Charles H. Amber, A History of West Virginia, pp. 276–79 ^ Grady, John (July 16, 2012). "The Birth of a State". New York Times. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012.  ^ "WVculture.org". WVculture.org. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ ""Chapter Twelve "Reorganized Government of Virginia
Virginia
Approves Separation"". Wvculture.org. Archived from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ A detailed list of delegate names and votes are located in Virgil Lewis' How West Virginia
Virginia
Was Made, pg. 30, and also Charles Ambler's A History of West Virginia, 1933, pg. 309. Missing from both lists, however, are the delegates for McDowell County, William P. Cecil and Samuel L. Graham, who also represented Tazewell and Buchanan counties, which are still part of Virginia. Both Cecil and Graham voted in favor of the Ordinance. See Pendleton, William C. History of Tazewell County and Southwest Virginia, 1748–1920, Richmond, 1920, pgs. 600 and 603. ^ Those not voting were Thomas Maslin of Hardy County and Benjamin Wilson of Harrison County. Ambler, Charles H. A History of West Virginia, pg. 309, footnote 32. ^ J. McGregor "The Disruption of Virginia", pg. 193 ^ The United States
United States
Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 147 ^ C. Ambler "The History of West Virginia", pg. 318 ^ Virgil Lewis "How West Virginia
Virginia
Was Made" pgs. 79–80 ^ Charles Ambler "The History of West Virginia", pg. 318 ^ "West Virginia
Virginia
Statehood". Wvculture.org. Archived from the original on March 7, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pgs. 141–152 ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pgs. 149–150 ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 149 ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 86 ^ J. McGregor "The Disruption of Virginia", pg. 270 ^ Williams p. 80 ^ John Alexander Williams, West Virginia: A Bicentennial History (W.W. Norton 1976), p. 78 ^ "Opinion of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
on the Admission of West Virginia". Wvculture.org. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ Virginia
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showed GDP growth from 2008 to 2009", The Herald-Dispatch. November 24, 2010. Accessed December 11, 2010 ^ a b "West Virginia
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improves per capita ranking" Archived November 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Catherine Zacchi. West Virginia Department of Commerce. 2010. Accessed December 11, 2010 ^ "Morgantown makes Forbes
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Department of Commerce. Accessed December 11, 2010 ^ "West Virginia
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Industries" Archived December 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., West Virginia
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Ten Year Tourism Plan".  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: West Virginia". June 12, 2008. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.  ^ "NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools – Renewable Energy Technical Potential". nrel.gov. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012.  ^ "Electric Power Monthly with Data for December 2014" (PDF). Eia.gov. February 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2017.  ^ "U.S. Installed Wind Capacity". windpoweringamerica.gov. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014.  ^ EIA (July 27, 2012). "Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.A." United States Department of Energy. Archived from the original on September 26, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.  ^ EIA (July 27, 2012). "Electric Power Monthly Table 1.17.B." United States Department of Energy. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.  ^ Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. "WINDExchange: U.S. Installed Wind Capacity". United States
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Department of Energy. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017.  ^ "Food Tax". State of West Virginia. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2014.  ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ West Virginia's Largest Private Employers for March 2009 Archived December 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.; West Virginia
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WorkForce. ^ "Tomblin: Rainy Day Fund to fill budget gap", Charleston Gazette. January 8, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Full WV Legislature
Legislature
passes budget bill Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., The State Journal. March 14, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "W.Va. governor signs budget that taps reserves" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Washington Times. March 20, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "State Exports via West Virginia" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Census Bureau. March 26, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Economic Confidence Still Highest in D.C. in 2013. Confidence improved in most states; West Virginia
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Water Ban Ends" Archived January 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Bloomberg News. January 15, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014 ^ "CBER Calculates Impact from Chemical Spill into Elk River" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Marshall University
Marshall University
Center for Business and Economic Research. February 4, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Widespread Economic Growth in 2012" Archived June 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. June 6, 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Governor Releases July Edge Business Report", West Virginia Department of Commerce. July 9, 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Regional and State Unemployment – 2013 Annual Averages" Archived March 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Bureau of Labor. February 28, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "West Virginia's February Unemployment Rate at 6.0 Percent" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., WorkForce West Virginia. March 18, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Labor Market Information by West Virginia
Virginia
County February 2014" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., WorkForce West Virginia. March 25, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "State Personal Income 2013" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. March 25, 2014. Accessed April 11, 2014. ^ "Income Equality by State", Economic Policy Institute. February 2014. Accessed April 11, 2014. ^ "United Van Lines annual migration study reveals Oregon
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as top moving destination of 2013" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., United Van Lines. January 2, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "West Virginia
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Economic Outlook 2014" Archived April 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., West Virginia
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University College of Business and Economics. March 31, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ a b "2012 County/Metro Population Estimates" Archived July 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Census Bureau. March 14, 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index 2013" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Gallup-Healthways. February 20, 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ " Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Gallup. March 25, 2014. Accessed April 14, 2014. ^ "KIDS COUNT Data Center" Archived April 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., KIDS COUNT Data Center. April 1, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "2013 KIDS COUNT Data Book" Archived April 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., KIDS COUNT Data Center. June 24, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Local economy is tough on marriages", Charleston Gazette. March 18, 2014. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "America's Health Rankings: 2013" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., United Health Foundation. December 11, 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "County Health Rankings Show Healthiest and Least Healthy Counties in Every State" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. March 20, 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Japan Shrinks" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Wilson Quarterly. Spring 2012. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "2012 County/Metro Population Estimates" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Centers for Disease Control. April 10, 2012. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Prevalence of Drug Use in Pregnant West Virginia
Virginia
Patients" Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., West Virginia
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Health Care Authority. July 1, 2010. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ "Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings" Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. September 2013. Accessed April 12, 2014. ^ Hendryx, Michael (2009). "Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia". Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 82: 243–249. doi:10.1007/s00420-008-0328-y. PMID 18461350.  ^ "Underlying Cause of Death, 1999–2015 Results". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.  ^ a b Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – West Virginia". US Election Atlas. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.  ^ a b Woodruff, Betsy (October 29, 2014). "Goodbye West Virginia". Archived from the original on July 21, 2017 – via Slate.  ^ "The Latest: GOP maintains majority in West Virginia
Virginia
Senate". Miami Herald. November 9, 2016. Archived from the original on November 10, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.  ^ McElhinny, Brad (November 9, 2016). "W.Va. Republicans celebrate Trump win and GOP gains". West Virginia
Virginia
MetroNews. Archived from the original on November 10, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.  ^ "Democrats Are Getting Destroyed In Key Senate States". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.  ^ "Local Exit Polls — Election Center 2008 – Elections & Politics from CNN.com". CNN. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010.  ^ "SurveyUSA.com". SurveyUSA.com. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ Public Policy Polling: "WV against gay marriage, for Tea Party, Steelers, Reds/Bucs", September 15, 2011 Archived July 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., accessed September 20, 2011 ^ "Rasmussenreports.com". Rasmussenreports.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Rasmussenreports.com". Rasmussenreports.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "West Virginia
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Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014.  ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.  ^ "West Virginia
Virginia
Lightning Football". Wvlightningfootball.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2012.  ^ [1] Archived December 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Appalachian String Band Festival". Wvculture.org. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Vandalia Gathering". Wvculture.org. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "Augustaheritage.com". Augustaheritage.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ WVgazette.com Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ West Virginia
Virginia
Symphony Orchestra Archived November 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ West Virginia
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Cultural Center Archived January 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved January 19, 2006. ^ West Virginia
Virginia
Division of Culture and History Archived February 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved January 19, 2006. ^ In 2001, Mountain Stage
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Dance Festival Archived January 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved January 20, 2006. ^ "Augustaheritage.com". Augustaheritage.com. July 4, 2010. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "West Virginia
Virginia
State Folk Festival". Etc4u.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "West Virginia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 560–564.  Charles H. Ambler, A History of Education in West Virginia
Virginia
From Early Colonial Times to 1949 (1951) Charles H. Ambler and Festus P. Summers. West Virginia, the Mountain State (1958) Jane S. Becker, Inventing Tradition: Appalachia
Appalachia
and the Construction of an American Folk, 1930–1940 1998. Richard A. Brisbin, et al. West Virginia
Virginia
Politics and Government (1996) James Morton Callahan, History of West Virginia
Virginia
(1923) 3 vol John C. Campbell, The Southern Highlander and His Homeland (1921) reissued 1969. Richard Orr Curry, A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and Copperhead Movement in West Virginia
Virginia
(1964) Donald Edward Davis. Where There Are Mountains: An Environmental History of the Southern Appalachians 2000. Ronald D, Eller. Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880–1930 1982. Carl E. Feather, Mountain People in a Flat Land: A Popular History of Appalachian Migration to Northeast Ohio, 1940–1965. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1998. Thomas R. Ford ed. The Southern Appalachian Region: A Survey. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1967. Horace Kephart, Our Southern Highlanders. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1922. Reprinted as Our Southern Highlanders: A Narrative of Adventure in the Southern Appalachians and a Study of Life among the Mountaineers. With an Introduction by George Ellison. Knoxville: University of Tennessee
Tennessee
Press, 1976. Gerald Milnes, Play of a Fiddle: Traditional Music, Dance, and Folklore in West Virginia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999. Otis K. Rice, The Allegheny Frontier: West Virginia
Virginia
Beginnings, 1730–1830 (1970), Otis K. Rice and Stephen W. Brown, West Virginia: A History, 2d ed. (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993), standard Curtis Seltzer, Fire in the Hole: Miners and Managers in the American Coal
Coal
Industry (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985), conflict in the coal industry to the 1980s. John E. Stealey III, West Virginia's Civil War-Era Constitution: Loyal Revolution, Confederate Counter-Revolution, and the Convention of 1872. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2013. Joe William Trotter Jr., Coal, Class, and Color: Blacks in Southern West Virginia, 1915–32 (1990) John Alexander Williams, West Virginia: A History for Beginners. 2nd ed. Charleston, W.Virginia: Appalachian Editions, 1997. John Alexander Williams. West Virginia: A Bicentennial History (1976) John Alexander Williams. West Virginia
Virginia
and the Captains of Industry 1976. John Alexander Williams. Appalachia: A History (2002)

Primary sources

Elizabeth Cometti, and Festus P. Summers. The Thirty-fifth State: A Documentary History of West Virginia. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library, 1966.

External links[edit]

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1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

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Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 39°00′N 80°30′W / 39°N 80.5°W / 39; -80.5

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155293408 LCCN: n79059831 ISNI: 0000 0004 0424 3

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